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Essays on 1st Essay Annotated Bibliographies 2nd Essay "In Australia, A Social Class Impacts Their Life Essay

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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES1.Bibliographic informationBook/extract from a book/JournalText BookBook titleHistory and class consciousnessAuthor/editorGeorg LukácsDate of publication1923Publisher & where publishedMerlin, London 1968Chapter/section title; Volume, number, pagespp. 51-52URL and date accessedses. library. usyd. edu. au/bitstream/2123/664/2/adtNU20050104.11440202whole. pdfviewed 6/5/2007SummaryMain argument (thesis) of the reading as it relates to the essay topicLukács takes on the very concept of Marxism and explores its impact on the development of thought on reason and consciousness. In particular Lukács develops his notion of “reification”: the transformation of the proletariat into a mystified fetish onto itself. Outline of ideas (content of reading as it relates to the essay topic)Lukács examines vulgar interpretations of Historical Materialism, and discusses the importance of this historical method.

In this, he explores the role of violence in social relations beyond the crude measures of production. He also explores the relationship between violence and being, and how violence shapes consciousness and the narrative of that consciousness: history. Lukács entreats reader to see the proletariat as subjects, and examines the consequences of treating them as objects. Lukacs reiterates from Marx that class-consciousness must become objectively realized within the proletariat in order for both a revolt against capitalism and societal change.

Hence proletarian consciousness is necessarily an outgrowth of the processes that govern the world-situation under capitalism. Somehow, in some way, a large portion of the working class must understand the are being oppressed and exploited, and that seizing the means of production is not only possible but the best way to achieve the aim of an open, equitable society. Lukacs’ in History and Class Consciousness is not as party-centered as he would be just a few years later in his work on Lenin.

As in Marx, the agency for transmission of class-consciousness is perhaps purposely ambiguous beyond the class struggle and often the notion of a political party imparting said consciousness is absent; it is doubtful that Marx or the early Lukacs believed a party’s actions could impart proletarian consciousness onto an unwilling population – Marx himself wrote that none but the proletariat could liberate itself. . The objective situation of the working class gives it interests as against the capitalist class. These Lukács labeled the ‘imputed’ class consciousness of the working class, which may or may not be recognized and acted on by any workers.

. The objective situation of the working class gives it interests as against the capitalist class. These Lukács labeled the ‘imputed’ class consciousness of the working class, which may or may not be recognized and acted on by any workers. Critical commentsThis e-journal is of great help and it is easy to understand. What is its main relevance to the essay (assignment 2)? This article provides the view of theorists on social classes consciousness. Quotes and paraphrases for possible use in the assignment(will not contribute to the word count, however, these section still compulsory)Page numberp.

15Quote/paraphraseWorkers are those who are forced to sell (or in the case of the unemployed, to try to sell) their ability to work to an employer, by their lack of alternative effective means of making a living. At work, they have little, if any control over their own labor or that of others, and are constrained to act under the direction of their employers, supervisors, fore people, managers, in sum ‘the boss’ in one guise or another.

The objective situation of the working class gives it interests as against the capitalist class. These Lukács labeled the ‘imputed’ class consciousness of the working class, which may or may not be recognized and acted on by any workers. 2.Bibliographic informationBook/extract from a book/JournalInternet journalBook titleAn Examination of the Pathways Through Which Social Class Impacts Health OutcomesAuthor/editorPaul HenryDate of publication2001Publisher & where publishedAcademy of Marketing Science Review [Online] 2001Chapter/section title; Volume, number, pagesURL and date accessedhttp: //www. amsreview. org/articles/henry03-2001.pdf viewed 6/5/2007SummaryMain argument (thesis) of the reading as it relates to the essay topicThe purpose of this paper is to delineate the class mechanisms driving persistent health inequality as a basis for informed Public Policy discussion.

The conclusion is that since these class mechanisms constitute fundamental features of social organization, any serious attempt to tackle the inequality requires unprecedented commitment to social change. Outline of ideas (content of reading as it relates to the essay topic)The same gradational pattern of increasing health disadvantage with each progressively lower level of social class group has been observed across developed Western Nations. These distinctions hold across alternative indicators of social class such as income, education, occupation and wealth.

The inequality holds across a broad range of health indicators such as mortality rates, low birth weight, obesity, heart disease, lung disease, incidence of smoking, asthma, cancer, diabetes, experience of sick days, lead content in blood, and also extend into areas such as accident rates, suicide, and exposure to violence and mental health. It is noteworthy that inequality in health status between social classes has persisted over time, despite advances in quality and access to health services, and institution of a range of public education and community reinvigoration programs.

Complicating our limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relationship between class and health is a lack of agreement as to the nature of the social class concept itself. The conception of class varies by researcher ranging from a purely economic notion through to a psychosocial specification. Lifecycle, race, ethnicity, and gender effects also confound examination of class influences on health. Despite the relative affluence of Western World Nations it is well accepted that health outcomes vary with social class position.

This systematic difference applies to both morbidity and mortality rates with lower social class groups experiencing a wide array of greater health problems and probability of earlier death. This disparity becomes evident at birth and continues throughout the life cycle. Even in the young adult phase when one is in their prime of life, lower-class individuals are relatively less healthy. Illustrative examples of health indicators include low birth weight, obesity, heart disease, lung disease, incidence of smoking, asthma, cancer, diabetes, experience of sick days, and also extend into areas such as accident rates, suicide, exposure to violence, and mental health.

Critical commentsThis e-journal is of great help and it is easy to understand. What is its main relevance to the essay (assignment 2)? The article elaborates the impacts of social class on health outcomes of Australians. Quotes and paraphrases for possible use in the assignment(will not contribute to the word count, however, these section still compulsory)Page numberp. 10Quote/paraphrase‘In Australia where heavy anti-smoking campaigns have run for many years -- including large-size print on the packet and at point of sale "smoking can kill you", "smoking causes lung cancer" -- this lower-class skew persists.

The warning signs presented across class groups appear to be just too clear and pervasive for this information to have not been broadly diffused. This suggests that equal knowledge is not enough to eliminate class inequalities. ’3.Bibliographic informationBook/extract from a book/JournalInternet journalBook titleSocial ClassAuthor/editorKath MaguireDate of publication2002Publisher & where publishedSociologies of Health & Illness E-Learning DatabankChapter/section title; Volume, number, pagesFrom all parts of the article. URL and date accessedwww. goodss. org/index. php? social-class/viewed 6/5/2007SummaryMain argument (thesis) of the reading as it relates to the essay topicUnderstanding the concept of social class, how it is modeled and some of the problems attached. Outline of ideas (content of reading as it relates to the essay topic)Until the 1980s the concept of social class, linking economic role, social identity and political affiliation, was almost unanimously seen as central to sociological study, particularly in the UK.

The class model of society is two-fold, working on both the level of social structure and of the individual. On a structural level, the organisation of society into economic classes leads to it being experienced from separate compartments, with differing interests.

When their interests clash, classes may come into conflict. On an individual level, the experience of a particular position in the class structure leads the individual to understand themselves as, in part, defined by that position and to ally themselves with those who share their position and have similar interests. This model often uses the widely understood categories of Working, Middle and Upper Class. It has been argued that the level of skill at work may not be the best way of measuring access to social resources.

The Registrar General’s scale contained absurdities like equating small tenant farmers and major land owners. Goldblatt has offered alternative measures including: home ownership, educational status and access to a car and has shown that all of these can be correlated to inequalities in mortality rates. During the last twenty-five years a number of writers, including Offe and Beck have questioned whether class still has relevance in a modern, pluralist welfare state. They have argued that class is not so important in defining who we are, how we behave or where our loyalties lie.

Social class is an ‘umbrella’ category. Being of a different class may involve differences in culture, economic circumstances, educational status, dietary preferences, housing conditions, property ownership and power. There will always be ‘fuzzy edges’ with people who could be counted in more than one category and people who move between classes over time. While it is a useful statistical and heuristic tool it should be applied with caution and not seen as a simple explanatory factor in itself. Critical commentsThis e-journal is of great help and it is easy to understand.

What is its main relevance to the essay (assignment 2)? The article provides a definition of social class. Quotes and paraphrases for possible use in the assignment(will not contribute to the word count, however, these section still compulsory)Page numberp. 15Quote/paraphraseSocial class is an ‘umbrella’ category. Being of a different class may involve differences in culture, economic circumstances, educational status, dietary preferences, housing conditions, property ownership and power. There will always be ‘fuzzy edges’ with people who could be counted in more than one category and people who move between classes over time.

While it is a useful statistical and heuristic tool it should be applied with caution and not seen as a simple explanatory factor in itself. 4.Bibliographic informationBook/extract from a book/JournalBookBook titleThe poverty of philosophyAuthor/editorKarl MarxDate of publication1847Publisher & where publishedMarx/Engels Internet Archive (marxists. org) 1999, Paris and BrusselsChapter/section title; Volume, number, pageschapter 2, part 5URL and date accessedhttp: //www. marxists. org/archive/marx/works/1847/viewed 6/5/2007SummaryMain argument (thesis) of the reading as it relates to the essay topicMarx’s distinction between classes in themselves and classes for themselves.

The difference was a question of organization and consciousness. Outline of ideas (content of reading as it relates to the essay topic)Conservatives try to pretend that the constrained choices in capitalist markets, including labour markets, are an index of freedom. In government, the media and academia they portray workers, including those with the most tenuous employment on contracts, as entrepreneurs and deny the relevance of class as a concept. Quite apart from the constraints on people’s behaviour in markets, notably the money and other resources at their disposal, the argument that markets secure liberty is wrong for another more profound reason.

Workplaces are dictatorships where workers have to do pretty much what they are told. The differences between employment under the enlightened despotisms of ‘nice bosses’ and the anguish that ‘nasty bosses’ generate don’t affect the fundamental experience of working class life: that others not workers themselves control the labour process and the products that result from it. There may be debates about trends in real income and patterns in the distribution of income and wealth. But issues of class relations and exploitation, in the Marxist sense, are quite clear, despite the limitations of and biases in the major sources of empirical data, notably the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Particularly for those with any doubts about the benefits and desirability of the established order, the existence of classes in themselves is hardly an issue. Economic conditions had first transformed the mass of the people of the country into worker. The combination of capital has created for this mass a common situation, common interests. This mass is thus already a class as against capital, but not yet for itself.

In the struggle, of which we have noted only a few phases, this mass becomes united, and constitutes itself as a class for itself. The interests it defends become class interests. But the struggle of class against class is a political struggle. Critical commentsThis book is one of the famous works of Karl Marx. It will be always a gem in the literature field. What is its main relevance to the essay (assignment 2)? This book was of great help in determining that what the theorists say about class. Quotes and paraphrases for possible use in the assignment(will not contribute to the word count, however, these section still compulsory)Page numberp.

15Quote/paraphraseEconomic conditions had first transformed the mass of the people of the country into worker. The combination of capital has created for this mass a common situation, common interests. This mass is thus already a class as against capital, but not yet for itself. In the struggle, of which we have noted only a few phases, this mass becomes united, and constitutes itself as a class for itself.

The interests it defends become class interests. But the struggle of class against class is a political struggle. 5.Bibliographic informationBook/extract from a book/JournalBookBook titleClass and struggle in AustraliaAuthor/editorRick Kuhn, Sam Pietsch and Diane FieldesDate of publication2005Publisher & where publishedPearson, Frenchs ForestChapter/section title; Volume, number, pagesSome Parts from the whole bookURL and date accessedhttp: //www. amsreview. org/articles/henry03-2001.pdf viewed 6/5/2007SummaryMain argument (thesis) of the reading as it relates to the essay topicDiane Fieldes sketches the structure and recent struggles of the working class and its unions. Tom Bramble considers the ways in which the established working class leadership, in the unions and Labor Party, is both shaped and compromised by its position between capital and labour.

Outline of ideas (content of reading as it relates to the essay topic)The promotion of conservative ideologies through and in businesses, government, education, the media and churches reinforces commodity fetishism. Generally, ‘the ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas’. This hegemony of ideas that serve capitalists’ interests is not, however, total. They pervade common sense understandings of the way society works. But direct and indirect experiences of struggle also influence the way we think.

Common sense can be contradictory. People are often hostile, as the media and government encourage them to be, when a group of workers takes strike action. Yet, if we know individuals who are on strike we are much more likely to be sympathetic to their industrial action. The Hawke, Keating and especially the Howard governments appealed to and reinforced racist hostility against refugees, by defaming them and locking them up in concentration camps. Nevertheless many of those who supported the policy of ‘mandatory detention’ are fine about workmates, friends and acquaintances of another race.

Common sense, like its close relation public opinion, can shift rapidly in response to changed circumstances. Its chapters illustrate in greater detail the ways that class shapes the world, influences political action and shapes consciousness. The first four examine the fundamental classes in Australian society and the most important institutions associated with them. Sam Pietsch profiles the ruling class, while Rick Kuhn deals with the structure and operation of the state. Diane Fieldes sketches the structure and recent struggles of the working class and its unions.

Tom Bramble considers the ways in which the established working class leadership, in the unions and Labor Party, is both shaped and compromised by its position between capital and labour. Graham Hastings looks at the role of the Australian education system and how students, a politically volatile group, fit into the class structure. Critical commentsThis book challenges many dominant, common sense ideas. What is its main relevance to the essay (assignment 2)? The indicators of class and how are these experienced by people in each of the classes present in Australia society. Quotes and paraphrases for possible use in the assignment(will not contribute to the word count, however, these section still compulsory)Page numberp.

10Quote/paraphrase‘The nature of bourgeois class power is also important here. Capitalists who control production do not necessarily, or often, play a direct role in the management of the capitalist state. Most of the time, the organization and logic of capitalist production and the resources of those who control it ensure that states and those in charge of them—senior politicians and public servants—act in the interests capital accumulation. ’In Australia, a social class impacts their life chancesSocial class is an ‘umbrella’ category.

Being of a different class may involve differences in culture, economic circumstances, educational status, dietary preferences, housing conditions, property ownership and power. There will always be ‘fuzzy edges’ with people who could be counted in more than one category and people who move between classes over time. While it is a useful statistical and heuristic tool it should be applied with caution and not seen as a simple explanatory factor in itself. In the words of Karl Marx social classes can be elaborated as: Economic conditions had first transformed the mass of the people of the country into worker.

The combination of capital has created for this mass a common situation, common interests. This mass is thus already a class as against capital, but not yet for itself. In the struggle, of which we have noted only a few phases, this mass becomes united, and constitutes itself as a class for itself. The interests it defends become class interests. But the struggle of class against class is political struggle.

Social mobility describes the movement or opportunities for movement between different social groups and the advantages and disadvantages that go with this e. g. income. Opportunities for social mobility are one dimension of an individual’s life chances. Life chances refer to the opportunities open to individuals to better the quality of life of themselves and their families. Other dimensions include the absence of poverty and social inclusion. A life chances approach focuses attention on the life cycle and not just creating a level playing field at birth as equality of opportunity might do.

Both life chances and social mobility can be considered intra and inter generational. A decline in the association between class origins and educational attainment appears to lie behind the rise in social fluidity in Australia in recent decades. Educational attainment appears to be especially important for long range upward mobility e. g. from the working class to the salariat. It explains much less well the intergenerational immobility (lack of downward mobility) within the salariat. But there is some evidence that education has played a (modestly) diminishing role in determining class destinations in recent decades e. g.

as softer skills such as personal style and team working ability have become more important to employers. Cultural capital consists of familiarity with the dominant culture in a society and especially the ability to understand and use ‘educated’ Language Families play a key role in disseminating cultural capital through books in the home; the consumption of a high culture such as the theatre and concerts; and intra-family discussion of cultural matters Cultural capital may be important for children’s cognitive and motivational development.

These are reflected in turn in, for example, children’s reading and TV viewing habits. Reading quality literature and watching of quality TV are associated with higher attainment in GCSEs. Cultural capital may also be important in later life. Unfamiliarity with particular types of music or cuisine or sport or art may serve as a barrier to social mobility and life chances. Schools and universities as well as the family may play a role in passing on cultural capital.

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