Essays on 2-Public Policy Formation And Analysis Assignment

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Paper1 Lindbloms IncrementalismIncrementalism is a policy-making procedure which produces decisions only slightly different from those of past practice. It is also referred to as the science of muddling through in contrast to the model of the balanced all-inclusive ideal of planning. It is preferred by conservatives because they see it as safe. It is also a model that conserves the system behavior. Almost all policy changes are incremental. This means that there are barriers to significant policy changes. The reasons that make policy changes incremental are discussed below. One of the foremost factors that make incremental change vogue is the fact that any natural system faces various constrains.

These constrains limit any significant policy change leaving room only for incremental change. Constrains are experienced in the financial areas, and also in other areas that are crucial to large organizations. It’s noteworthy to consider that most policymakers and decision takers in large organizations are averse to risks. This is because they are afraid that unanticipated for changes will bring irreversible results. Thus, they employ risk-averse strategies, and the result is that incremental changes occur in the organization (Lindblom 79-88). Incrementalism is preferred because like inaction, it is known to consume fewer resources.

Other systems consume large resources, and they are mostly unproven. Prospects of large budgetary deficits discourage policy makers from tackling organizational problems on a grand scale. There are some things that must happen for significant policy to occur in the incremental set up. It is imperative to understand that this type of management is being discussed in the realm of political science, and the public arena. One of the things that have got to happen to set the wheels of Incrementalism in motion is the availability of constitutional checks and balances.

Together with the constitutional balances there has to be separation of powers, and also a system of political federalism. These are to ensure that the decision- making process is not overly streamlined. This is because if the process is remarkably streamlined, Incrementalism is thwarted (Lindblom 79-88). For change to occur under this policy system there, has to be the existence of sub-governments, and interest groups. These manipulate the occurrence of incremental change within the status quo. These groups limit the scope of alternatives, control institutional micro agenda and skew the process of decision making in line with past practices.

They also shut out those voices that are unsympathetic to incremental change. Incremental change cannot happen if there is no culture of political compromise, bargaining and negotiation. This political culture is central to the process of incremental change especially if the political arena is one that is decentralized. The features of complex and large organization also aid the incremental process. These include features like inertia, fragmentation, financial constrains, bureaucracy and conflicting goals.

Operating under the principle of established principles like the due process in law promotes Incrementalism (Lindblom 79-88). Paper 2 The streams model deals with the policy making under the rubric of ambiguous conditions. Ambiguity being defined as the state of having various ways of thinking about the same phenomenon, the streams model is infested with various barriers that hinder policy change.

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