The paper "Critical Analysis of the Management Theories" is an outstanding example of management coursework. There has been a widespread increase at the beginning of the last century in factory manufacturing and the size of organizations. The organizations are always trying to find ways to motivate the workforce to enhance productivity. The desire for management ideas led to the contributions of classical theorists such as Henri Fayol and Frederick Taylor. Taylor handled the generation of scientific management theory whereas Fayol invented the administrative management theory. Elton Mayo was the predominated figure in the Hawthorne studies and gave a contribution to the Behavioural viewpoint.
As a result, the Human Relations Movement gave rise to Douglas McGregor’ s Theory X and Theory Y approach. There are some differences and similarities between their theories due to the implementation term. The goal of the theory gives a view of the organizations. However, the contingency theory helps refute the differences that occur because it allows the application of the relevant to particular situations. Scientific Management by Frederick Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was an American engineer and inventor who practically applied both his engineering and scientific knowledge in management and development of a theory known as the scientific management theory (Schermerhorn, 2011, p. 32).
He also wrote two most important books on his theory; The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) and The Shop Management (1903). The scientific management theory exists in many other types of businesses and also in nearly all modern manufacturing firms. His imprint is available in design planning, quality control, production control, process, ergonomics, as well as cost accounting. For an individual to understand the scientific management principles, he/she is required to be able to be conversant with the manufacturers’ production of their goods and most importantly how they manage their employees.
It is also essential in understanding the need for data analysis, or the quantitative analysis and the needed numbers to enhance both efficiency and effectiveness in production (Kanigel, 2005, p. 19). Principles of Scientific Management Theory Scientific management theory in general terms is the application of principles of industrial engineering to come up with a system that can result in waste avoidance. As a result, there is an improvement in the method and process of production and a fair distribution of these goods.
These improvements experienced become a cornerstone in trying to address the need of the employers, workforce and society in general. His theory has four main principles of management. These principles are: Actively gathering, analysing, and converting information to rules, laws, as well as mathematical formulas for completing tasks. Making use of the modern scientific approach in the selection, hiring and training of the new staff. Enabling the workers to use scientific methods in handling their roles and responsibilities Allocation of the work correspondingly between employees and managers.
Management uses scientific techniques to plan while the human capital perform the tasks basing on the set plans Frederick Taylor used the collection and analysis of data to study management. For instance, he carried out motion studies to enhance efficiency. Taylor studied the motions needed to fulfil a task, he came up with a way of breaking the task into manageable component motions and discovered that it was the most effective and efficient manner to handle the work.
List of References
Bruce, K. (2006). Henry S. Dennison, Elton Mayo, and Human Relations historiography. Management & Organizational History, 1(2), pp.177-199.
Bruce, K. and Nyland, C. (2011). Elton Mayo and the Deification of Human Relations. Organization Studies, 32(3), pp.383-405.
Cole, G. (2004). Management theory and practice. London: Thomson Learning, p.32.
Golden Pryor, M. and Taneja, S. (2010). Henri Fayol, practitioner and theoretician â€“ revered and reviled. Journal of Management History, 16(4), pp.489-503.
Kanigel, R. (2005). The one best way. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, p.19.
Kozlowski, S. and Salas, E. (2011). Learning, training, and development in organizations. New York: Routledge.
Miller, K. (2009). Organizational communication. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, p.169.
Nair, A. (2006). Meta-analysis of the relationship between quality management practices and firm performanceâ€”implications for quality management theory development. Journal of Operations Management, 24(6), pp.948-975.
Pride, W., Hughes, R. and Kapoor, J. (2014). Business. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, p.260.
Schermerhorn, J. (2011). Exploring management. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, p.32.
Spender, J. and Kijne, H. (2012). Scientific Management. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Springer US, p.101.
Taylor, F. (2012). Principles of Scientific Management. Mineola: Dover Publications, p.11.
Trahair, R. and Trahair, R. (2005). Elton Mayo. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, p.51.
Wood, J. and Wood, M. (2002). F.W. Taylor. London: Routledge, p.67.