@ 2011IntroductionGenerally, since time immemorial, people have been depending a great deal on mass media in order to get informed about different happenings, scenarios and affairs at regional, national or even at global level. From this information got from mass media, individuals at a personal level draw evaluated conclusions based on a number of factors like ones geographical disposition and comparison of news from different sources. These factors compressed form critical framing (Campbell 2011). Critical framing is the informed and conscious organization of principles that transform sketchy or incidental information into a structured and meaningful problem, in which a solution is implicitly or explicitly included (Mbeke 2008). It is composed of analytical and evaluative aspect.
It therefore follows that there are well placed procedures and methodologies put in place to maintain objectivity in the checks and balances of the systems to avoid biasness and objectivity. Critical framing tries to map and explain the similarities, differences and inconsistencies in the quality of the information conveyed by the mass media. To achieve at sensible evaluation of issues, there is need for an investigative and effective methodology that is capable of pursuing evaluation and to generate standards on which such a quality assessment can be based on (Chweya 2002). Frames are often grouped into different categories depending on the scope of content and geographical coverage they appear to wrap.
These levels are composed of the following; The macro level –this covers an entire nation like disaster such as earthquake or a society like civil war. The meso level- this covers a group of people in a certain region such politiciansThen there is the micro level which refers to framing processes by individual actors. There is also strategic framing whereby the actors tend to behave in a certain manner in order to impress their viewers and thereby maintain their employment. A news story frame should meet the following criteria (Mbeke 2008); A frame is meant to be focused.
It should give information that is meant to without leaving any detail unattended and at the same time not going off track. It is also supposed to be comprehensive in that it gives detailed information of what is happening at the ground level. No information should be left so that the listeners have a feel of adequacy of the media source. It is also supposed to be precise.
A frame should give exact information which should be objective and not give individual opinions. It should maintain integrity and act professionally in that it should not add or subtract any information. This creates a sense of dependability due to trustworthiness from the listeners. It should also be sensitive enough not to flare up the emotions of already agitated audiences into reactions especially on sensitive matters like war. It should also be timely in that it delivers information on time so as to create reliability from the clients. Every frame should be logically consistent in that it should be reliable and dependable.
The information should have connection and inter-relationship of various aspects of the document (Carr 2011).