The paper “ The New Public Management and Its Principles” is a worthy example of the literature review on management. Today, there is a new prototype of public management called the “ New Public Management” (NPM) which came into use at the beginning of the 1990s to describe the type of reforms being carried out within the public sector in countries such as the United Kingdom (UK). Basically, the NPM can be thought of as a form of management that is used for structuring changes within an organization. According to Hood (1991), he defined the NPM as a move to create an organization which was based on professional management modalities and some doctrines should be followed including: an emphasis on hands-on professional management skills for active, visible, discretionary control of organizations (freedom to manage); explicit standards and measures of performance through clarification of goals, targets, and indicators of success; a shift from the use of input controls and bureaucratic procedures to rules relying on output controls measured by quantitative performance indicators; Thus, with the NPM, there is an increase in the usage of private companies and semi-governmental bodies in carrying out public services together with those delivered by the traditional government bodies.
This can also be seen within local governments where there is now competition to tender goods or services. In the UK, the “ Competing for Quality” is a market reform using NPM principles to extend its services into the central government whereas the “ Private Finance Initiative” in the central and local government was formed to increase the utilization of private investment in order to provide certain public services paid for by taxpayers. Some the areas of provision include health, education and even the building and maintenance of roads. New Public Management in HealthcareRecords as early as the 1980s have shown that emphasis and changes have been made within healthcare systems not only within the UK but globally in order to reform the way management as well as administration is being carried out (Dent, 2003).
Additionally, governmental organizations have also been trying to extend the scope of management, the ability to actually market their services and to have a greater control over input and output levels (McKee and Healy, 2002).
Davies, H. T. O. & Harrison, S. (2003) Trends in doctor-manager relationships. British Medical Journal, 326(7390)
Degeling, P., Maxwell, S., Kennedy, J., & Coyle, B. (2003) Medicine, management, and modernisation: a "danse macabre"? British Medical Journal, 326(7390)
DeLeon, P & Green, M.T. (2001) Corruption and the New Public Management. Learning from International Public Management Reform. Elsevier Science.
Denhardy, R.B & Denhardt, J. V. (2000). The New Public Service: Serving Rather than Steering. Public Administration Review. Vol 60. No. 6
Dent, M. (2003) Remodelling Hospitals and Health Professions in Europe: Medicine, Nursing and the State. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dent, M.(2006) ‘Post-NPM in public sector hospitals. The UK, Germany and Italy’, Policy & Politics 33/4
Ejersbo, N. and Carsten Greve (2005) “Public Management Policymaking in Denmark 1983-2005”. Paper for:IIM/LSE Workshop on Theory and Methods for Studying Organizational Processes. 17 – 18 February 2005, London School of Economics
Fitzgerald, L. & Dufour, Y. (1998) ‘Clinical management as boundary management: A comparative analysis of Canadian and UK health-care institutions’. Journal of Management in Medicine, 12(4/5)
Forbes, T., Hallier, J., & Kelly, L. (2004) ‘Doctors as managers: investors and reluctants in a dual role’. Health Services Management Research, 17
Harrison, S., Hunter, D.J., Marnoch, G. and Pollitt, C. (1992) Just Managing: Power and Culture in the National Health Service, London: Macmillan
Hood, C.C. (1991). “A Public Management for All Seasons” Public Administration, 69
Klein, R. (2001) The New Politics of the NHS (4th edition), London: Prentice-Hall
Kurunmäki, L. (2004) ‘A hybrid profession - the acquisition of management accounting expertise by medical professionals’, Accounting Organizations and Society, 29(3-4)
Llewellyn, S. (2001) 'Two-way windows': Clinicians as medical managers. Organization Studies
McKee, M. & Healy, J. (2002) Hospitals in a changing Europe, Buckingham: Open University Press.
Pollitt, C. (1995) Justification by Works or by Faith. Evaluating the New Public Management. Evaluation. Vol. 1. No. 2
Pollock, A., (2005) NHS plc : the privatisation of our health care. 2nd ed, London: Verso. xvi
Ranade, W. (1997) A Future for the NHS? Health care for the Millennium (2nd Edition), London: Longman.
Rundall, T. G., Davies, H. T. O., & Hodges, C. L. (2004) Doctor-manager relationships in the United States and the United Kingdom. Journal of Healthcare Management, 49(4)
Sinclair, S. (1997), Making Doctors: An Institutional Apprenticeship (Oxford, Berg).
Sundhedsministeriet (1997): Udfordringer i sygehusvæsenet. Betænkning fra Sygehuskommisionen. Betænkning nr. 1329. København. Statens Information