The paper “ Open Systems Theory, the Main Issues of Sustainability, Ethical Behavior in Management, Organizational Controls and Organizational Control Systems” is an affecting example of an assignment on management. The open systems theory describes organizational systems that interact with the external environment. This theory assumes that an organization can be analyzed as an open system, just like biological organisms (Lawrence 231). Katz and Kahn (as cited by Lawrence) explain that just as the systems of an organism rely on each other, an open system relies on the external environment for obtaining input resources, transforming them and sending the end products back to the external environment (231).
Examples of inputs include raw materials, labor, technological equipment, power supplies, and customer orders. Examples of the common processes for converting inputs into outputs include production, planning, marketing and sale processes. The output may be in the form of products or services, but waste products may also be transferred to the environment. The open systems theory, therefore, describes an open system that depends upon the external environment for sustenance and must be responsive to it in order to survive.
This means that an open system has to be able to adapt to the changes that occur in the external environment. A system that is not able to adapt to changes in the external environment will not be able to compete with others and will eventually die (Schermerhorn et al. 34). In other words, an organization has to perform the processes of import-conversion-export in order to survive. In order to do so, an organization has to develop a boundary with the external environment, through which the exchanges will take place (Lawrence 231).
Individuals and groups within organizations can also be described as open systems with internal and external environments. The open systems theory is quite significant to management in any organization. For an organization to succeed in an open system, the boundaries need to be managed in a way that will ensure that there is appropriate inward and outward flow of resources. The boundary should be managed in a way that prevents leakages to the external environment while protecting the organization from dangers emanating from the external environment (Lawrence 231).
The management should learn to respect the boundaries that exist between internal and external environments of individuals and groups. Q2. The main issues of sustainabilitySustainability in organizations refers to practices that do not negatively affect the economic social and natural environment of an organization but which guarantee future success (Wells 4). A sustainable business manifests three major principles of sustainability. The first aspect is economic sustainability which implies the application of various business strategies that lead to the efficient and effective utilization of resources such that the future financial success of the organization is guaranteed (Wells 4).
One of the common strategies of attaining economic sustainability is through the implementation of a system that enhances the continuous upgrading of knowledge and skills of employees. The second aspect is environmental sustainability which implies the move towards the use of renewable rather than non-renewable resources. It also implies the minimization or elimination of pollutants and hazardous wastes or disposing of such wastes in a state that is beneficial to the environment. This can be achieved for instance through replacing inputs that produce harmful wastes with inputs that are less or not harmful to the environment (Schermerhorn et al.
36). An organization undertaking this practice is regarded as an active promoter of ecological or environmental sustainability.