Essays on H1N1 Bringing into Consideration Its History, Transmission, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Coursework

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The paper "H1N1 Bringing into Consideration Its History, Transmission, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment" is a perfect example of medical science coursework.   Diseases come with different varieties (strains), which each affecting human race differently (CDC, 2010). One such disease is the swine influenza sometimes called pig influenza, which is a strain of influenza that is commonly endemic in pigs (Trifonov 119). Two common strains of influenza exist which include influenza C and influenza A, which is further grouped as H1N1 H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3. Thus, the aim of this paper is to analyse H1N1 bringing into consideration its history, transmission, causes, symptoms, and treatment. History H1N1 can be traced back to the 1918 flu pandemic when it was first proposed to be a disease that was related to human influenza, a time when humans and pigs were reported to be sick.

However, the first time that it was reported that influenza virus contributed to disease in pigs was in 1930 (CDC, 2010). Generally, it means that the H1N1 subtype is the strain that has been causing influenza diseases in the 20th century, and thus contributes to seasonal epidemic influenza.

According to statistics in the US, direct transmission of influenza between pigs and humans is rare since it is believed that 12 causes have been reported since 2005. Nevertheless, it may be assumed that pigs retain the influenza strain even after it has disappeared from the human population, and thus pigs may be assumed the reservoirs of the influenza virus. This means that later the influenza virus emerges to reinfect people especially when the immunity in humans has waned. Historically, numerous incidents have been reported that is assumed H1N1 caused deaths The first instance of a pandemic was in the 1918 flu in which influenza appeared in pigs; many people scientists and researchers before that this was the first incident of zoonosis either from humans to pigs or vice versa (Trifonov 116).

Even though there is no clear evidence of the direction of influenza virus movement since some scientists believe that humans infected pigs since the first instance of swine influenza was reported in 1918 just after a large population of people had been infected. However, recent phylogenetic analysis indicates that the outbreak resulted after a re-assortment in a mammal and thus the exact strain of the virus is still elusive.

In the 1918 flu pandemic, it is believed that between 50 and 100 million died because of the infection. In 1976, an outbreak of H1N1 was reported in an army recruit when one soldier died while four others were hospitalised complaining of disease that had symptoms like those of influenza. This strain was similar to the one that causes the 1918 flu pandemic. In 1988 and after a county fair, a woman died while other people were infected by influenza (Smith 1124).

A high percentage of those exhibiting pigs reported influenza-like symptoms that were later tested and found to be antibodies to SIV. This influenza was able to spread between people because doctors who cared for some patients reported similar problems and antibody test reported similar outcomes. Transmission between pigs, humans The transmission between pigs is commonly between the infected and uninfected pigs. These common is through intensive farming, during transportation, and pigs touching each other.

Another important means of transmission between pigs is airborne transmission especially when they sneeze or cough. In the case of humans, the human population who commonly work with pigs and poultry, and are exposed intensely have an increased chance of infection (CDC, 2010). In such situations, re-assortment and zoonosis results. To reduce the chances of infection, vaccination can be used for those people who deal with these animals.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic: Summary Highlights, April 2009-April 2010. 16 June 2010. 27 Dec. 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/cdcresponse.htm

Jain, S., Kamimoto, L., Bramley, AM., et al. Hospitalized patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza in the United States, April–June 2009. New England Journal of Medicine 361.20 (2009): 1935–44.

Moreno, Rui, Rhodes Andrew, and Chiche Jean-Daniel. The ongoing H1N1 flu pandemic and the intensive care community: challenges, opportunities, and the duties of scientific societies and intensivists. Intensive Care Medicine, 35.12 (2009): 2005-2008

Smith, G., Vijaykrishna, D., Bahl, J., Lycett, SJ., Worobey, M., Pybus, OG., Ma, SK., Cheung, CL et al. Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. Nature 459 (2009): 1122–1125

Trifonov, Vladimir, Khiabanian, Hossein, and Rabadan, Raul. Geographic Dependence, Surveillance, and Origins of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus. New England Journal of Medicine 61.2 (2009): 115–119.

Writing Committee of the WHO Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza. Clinical Aspects of Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection. The New England Journal of Medicine (New England Journal of Medicine) 362.362 (2010): 1708–19.

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