Essays on Research Methodologies in Business Coursework

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "Research Methodologies in Business" is an outstanding example of business coursework.   Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies are commonly used in business-related studies. Quantitative researches methods include experiments, quasi-experiments and surveys. The qualitative study is based on the assumption that human behavior should be predictable in nature, hence the presence of cause-and-effect phenomena. This research method studies variables that are quantifiable, and avoid subjective human nature. In business-related studies, quantitative research assists in the provision of hard and tangible facts, which are also practical in nature. The qualitative research does not only study social behavior but also seeks to answer the question ‘ why? ’ It is a method has studies the subjective nature of human behavior, and assists in explaining human perceptions, beliefs and attitudes.

In qualitative research, human behavior is assumed complex in nature, hence unpredictable, and absence of cause-and-effect phenomena. Some of the common methods in qualitative research include observation, focused group and case studies. Triangulation (a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods) provides more reliable and valid information that can transform the business world. Introduction The discussion will focus on different research methodologies that are used in business.

The strengths and weakness of these methods will be provided, while still explaining their similarities and differences. The methods will be categorised as either qualitative or quantitative depending on their nature. The quantitative methods will include experiments, quasi-experiments and surveys. On the other hand, the qualitative methods in the study are case studies and observation. Literature review of research methodologies Quantitative and qualitative research methods Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies are commonly used in the study of social phenomena. According to Cohen (2008), the goal of quantitative research is to test the theory, eliminate biasness and indicate the correlation between variables.

The quantitative study is based on the positivism perspective, which posits that any scientific research should offer a prediction of other related social phenomena and that it should be subject to emperical verification. In this sense, therefore, quantitative research holds the belief of cause-and-effect. The quantitative research holds that a scientific study should be value-free. This means that any form of subjectivity and biasness compromises a scientific study. Hence, under the quantitative study, the study of human subjective nature, such as emotions is discouraged.

This owes to the fact that it is difficult to quantify such subjective variables. According to Blumberg, Copper, & Schindler (2011), quantitative research is based on validity, reliability and generalizability. The research instruments, such as questionnaires and interview schedules should be able to measure exactly what they have been designed to. This constitutes the validity of quantitative research, meaning that the data collected is objective. Further, the reliability of a study means that there should be the consistency of result findings, regardless of geographical location, if similar conditions are presented.

In this sense, if people are studying particular social phenomena using quantitative research, their findings ought to have some degree of consistency. Lack of consistency would mean that one or both studies are biased. Finally, the quantitative study holds that the study findings can be applied across other similar social issues (generalization). This confirms that quantitative research is used in predicting future behaviours, through the cause-and-effect phenomenon.

References

Arthur, J., Waring, M., Coe, R., and Hedges, L. V. 2012. Research Methods and Methodologies in Education. London: SAGE Publications

Allan, AJ, Randy, LJ, 2005, Writing the Winning Thesis or Dissertation. A Step-by-Step Guide, Corwin Press, California

Anderson, V. (2009) Research Methods in Human Resource Management (second edition). London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Black, K. (2003) Business Statistics for Contemporary Decision making (fourth edition). London: Wiley

Bowerman, B. L., O’Connell, R. T. and Murphree, E. S. (2009) Business Statistics in Practice (fifth edition). London: McGraw-Hill.

Brown RB, 2006, Doing Your Dissertation in Business and Management: The Reality of Research and Writing, Sage Publications

Bryman, A. 2008. Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Blumberg, B., Copper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S. 2011 Business Research Methods. London: McGraw-Hill.

Collis, J. and Hussey, R. 2009 Business Research: A practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students (third edition).Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Davies, B. M. 2007 Doing a Successful Research Project: Using Qualitative or Quantitative Methods. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Field, A. 2013 Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (fourth edition). London: Sage.

Cohen, L, Manion, L, Morrison, K & Morrison, RB, 2007, Research Methods in Education, Routledge

Cohen, D. and Crabtree, B. 2008. “Qualitative Research Guidelines Project”. [online]. Available at: http:/www.qualres.org/HomeInte-3516.html [Accessed 6 December 2014].

Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. 1994. "Introduction: Entering the field of qualitative research." In NK Denzin and YS Lincoln (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. pp. 1-18. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Denscombe, M, 2004, The Good Research Guide for small-scale social research, 2nd edition, Open University Press.

Hallebone, E. & Priest, J. 2009. Business and management research: paradigms and practices. New York: Palgrave McMillan.

Holloway, I. 1997. Basic Concepts for Qualitative Research. Oxford. Blackwell Science.

Kincheloe, L. 2008. Knowledge and Critical Pedagogy. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.

Kitching, G. 2008. The Trouble with Theory: The Educational Costs of Postmodernism, New York. Penn State University Press.

Keating, M. 2008. Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences: A Pluralist Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 80-98.

Mariyani-Squire, E. 2008. Social Constructivism: A flawed Debate over Conceptual Foundations. Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 10(4), 97–125.

Macionis, J. and Gerber, Linda M. 2010. Sociology. Ontario, Pearson Education Canada.

Malterud, K. 2001. The art and science of clinical knowledge: Evidence beyond measures and numbers. The Lancet. 358: 397-400.

Monette, DR, Sullivan, TJ, DeJong, CR, 2005, Applied Social Research. A Tool for the Human Services, 6th edition

O’Leary Z. 2004 “The essential guide to doing research”. Sage.

O’Leary, Z. 2010 The Essential Guide to Doing Your Research. Projects. London: Sage.Sage

Pickering, M. 1999. Augusta Comte: An Intellectual Biography. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, England.

Ridley, D. (2011) The Literature Review: A step-by-Step Guide for Students. London: Sage

Saunders, M. N. K., Lewis, P., and Thornhill, A. 2006. Research Methods for Business Students. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Sayer, A. 1997. Critical Realism and the Limits to Critical Social Science. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 27(4): p. 473-488.

Sayer, A. 2000. Realism and Social Sciences. London: Sage

Somarathne, D. 2010. The Wire Frame: Research methodology and methods. [Online] Available at: http://www.thewireframecommunity.com/node/196 [Accessed on: 6 December 2014]

Schunk, H. 2008. Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective, 5th. Pearson, Merrill Prentice Hall.

Walliman, N. 2011. Your Research Project. London: SAGE.

Walliman, N. S. & Walliman N. 2011 “Research methods: the basics” Taylor and Francis

VanderStroep, S.W & Johnson, D.D. 2010 “Research Methods for Everyday Life: Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches” John Wiley & Sons

Yin, R. K. (2009) Case Study Research: Design and Methods (4thedition). London: Sage

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us