The paper "Accident and Catastrophes" is a great example of management coursework. The risk of product loss containment is 0.0125 which is outside the risk tolerance criteria of 10-6. This implies that there is a high chance of loss of product containment during the use of the vessel. Consequently, there is the need to ensure this risk is controlled so that the operation of the vessel does not result in loss of fuel containment. In addition, the risk of the likelihood of an event that results in the cloud explosion is 0.25 which is greater than the tolerance criteria of 10-6.
This implies that there is a high risk of vapour explosion, thus, there is the need to develop measures for preventing the explosions. Role of human error in the occurrence of major risk incident. Human error can contribute significantly to the occurrence of major risks. This can be explained by the use of various theoretical models2. For instance, according to the ‘ Swiss Cheese Model’ , of system failure, every step in a procedure has a possibility of failure to an extent. This can be represented by means of a stack of slices of cheese.
In the stack; the holes illustrate opportunities for the failure of the process2. When there is an error, the problem is able to pass through the hole in one layer, but in the next layer the holes are placed in different locations and the problem is likely to be caught. Mannan, Sam. Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control. [S. l.]: Butterworth-Heinemann, vol. 1, no. 4, 2012, p. 51 Each layer represents a defence against a possible error that affects the outcome.
When the error is catastrophic, the holes must be aligned in the same path in the slices enabling all defences to be defeated and resulting in the occurrence of an error. When the layers are created with the holes in the same line, this result into an inherent flaw in the system that will enable the problem to persist from the beginning of the process until the end of the outcome. Slices of cheese represent opportunities that enable a person to stop an error when a person puts up more defences, the better the chances of preventing an error.
In addition, when the holes are fewer and also smaller, the more likely it is to stop an error that is likely to occur.
1. Ferret, E., & Hughes, P., ‘Introduction to Health and Safety at Work: The Handbook for the Nebosh National General Certificate’, Industrial Law, vol. 7, no. 3, 2011, p. 69.
2. Mannan, Sam. Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control. [S.l.]: Butterworth-Heinemann, vol. 1, no. 4, 2012, p. 51
3. Muhlbauer, W. Kent. Pipeline Risk Management Manual Ideas, Techniques, and Resources. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Golf Professional Pub, vol. 6, no. 2, 2004, p. 4.
4. Howarth, T. & Griffith, A., ‘Construction Health and Safety Management’. Technical Law, vol. 4, no. 1, 2014, p. 31.
5. Wilson, Laird, Doug McCutcheon, and Marilyn Buchanan. Industrial Safety and Risk Management. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, vol. 4, no. 4, 2003, p. 25.