The paper 'Scientific Management and Other Management Theories' is a perfect example of a Management Essay. Fredrick Winslow Taylor’ s scientific management theory states that there is only one best way to get a job done and that way is scientific methods. Taylor came up with the theory through observations and experiences that he had gone through while working as a mechanical engineer. During this time he realized that the environment that he was working in did not have work standards, had inefficient workers, and jobs were given to employees without matching the employees’ knowledge, skill, or ability.
He also noticed that these problems led to many conflicts between the managers and the workers (Caldari, 2007). The scientific management theory is “ the development of a science to replace the rule-of-thumb knowledge of the workmen” and this is seen in the analysis of the financial statement in the form of labor costs, which includes employees’ salaries, training, loans, and benefits. This essay will give an overview of scientific management, the challenges it faces other management theories like bureaucratic, administrative, and “ Theory Y” and “ Theory X” and lastly the essay will discuss the contributions of these theories in different organizations in Australia. Scientific management theory Scientific management is based on objectives that are viewed as guidelines in applying its system of working.
The objectives are; development of a spirit of hearty and loyal cooperation between the management and workers for the assuring that work-related responsibilities should be done according to the scientifically devised procedures, development of a scientific explanation of every element of a man’ s work to replace the old rule-of-thumb methods, he recommended that the division of work between workers and management should be in almost equal shares (Caldari, 2007).
In this he said, each group should take overwork of which it is best fitted rather than the former mode of working where responsibilities were largely left to the workers. The last objective was that there should be a scientific selection, training, and development of workers instead of letting them choose their own tasks and train themselves. Taylor with his scientific management theory suggested a system responsible for breaking down each function into component parts and deciding the most efficient way of accomplishing each task.
The daily production rate was to be established using stopwatches and workers trained to act in a manner desirable to the management (Schwartz, 2007). Scientific management is the main theory behind various payment systems which are being introduced in the modern days’ organizations. The payments can be based on commission-only, sales remuneration, piece-work, and incentives based on work that is measured. Scientific management results in the ‘ economic man model’ that was very common a century ago. There is an assumption that working people come up with rational economic calculations and are encouraged by the objective of earning the most pay possible (Bowey, 2005).
This promoted managers to come up with financial incentives schemes founded on work measurement; it was assumed that providing extra money for every increment of work leads to maximization of output. Hartshorne’ s studies carried out in the 1930s aimed at identifying the best environment for maximization of work performance.
List of References
Boud, D, Cressey, P, Docherty, P, 2005, Productive Reflection at Work: Learning for Changing Organizations, London: Routledge
Bowey, A, 2005, ‘Motivation: the art of putting theory into practice’, European Business Forum, issue 20, winter, pp 17-20
Caldari, K 2007, ‘Alfred Marshall’s critical analysis of scientific management’, The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 14:1, March, pp 55-78
Cole, G, A, 2004, Management Theory and Practice, London: Cengage Learning EMEA
Schwartz, M, 2007, ‘The “business ethics” of management theory’, Journal of Management History, vol. 13, no. 1, pp 43-54.