Assignment 1Knowledge ManagementNowadays, most of the organizations have embarked and are still going on with initiatives geared toward improving their Knowledge Management. Mainly, these strategies focus on Knowledge Management practices that are being applied by Knowledge Management professionals within their respective organizations. To improve on this, organizations as well as practitioners are carrying out surveys to assess new methods that can sufficiently govern adequate implementation and management of Knowledge Management. The main aim of this annotated bibliography is to assess based on research that has already been done, the way organizations are implementing Knowledge Management i. e.
tools used as well as it implications on improving effectiveness within the organization. This bibliography commences with a research article from Carlo et al. (2009) which focuses on explaining the new institutional perspective as a paradigm shift towards Knowledge Management Technology. The second article is by Elayne et al. (2010) and it has focused on strategies and technologies being applied by organizations in Knowledge Management and goes on further to explain how this can improve effectiveness in an organization. Third article is by Mirghani, (2008) which dwells much on the reasons why various technologies applicable in Knowledge Management are necessary.
Forth article is by Mirghani et al. (2006) and tries to establish the possibility of both the Information Technology and Knowledge Management being applied in a harmonious way to improve effectiveness in an organization. The bibliography concludes with a research article from John et al. (2005) in which the various Information Technological tools/ systems have been evaluated; in terms of their role in improving Knowledge Management. Title and reference of articleCarlo, R., Diego, P. and Matteo, B.
(2009). . Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 75-85. Type of articleA case study research article on a knowledge intensive firm Aim/purpose of articleThis article aims at providing a new institutional perspective with respect to adoption of technology on knowledge management by carrying out an empirical study on a knowledge intensive firm. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]Data collection: In this case study, the research was carried out mainly through interviewing personnel entrusted with formulating and implementing Knowledge Management initiatives in the Information Technology-based firm: X-TEL.
Analysis: ethnographic research methods. Findings1. The authors identified that knowledge techno-structure does not correspond various alternative upon which robust knowledge work may be organized. 2. Vertical perspective: The proposed changes for instance SAP, Microsoft SharePoint, EAGLE, and KEEx, were found not to improve the anticipated efficacy and efficiency in regard to Knowledge Management structure. 3. Horizontal perspective: there is lack of integration and/or harmonization (horizontal decoupling) in the implementation of tools such as EAGLE and Microsoft SharePoint. It was noted that this decoupling inhibits efficiency and effectiveness of an organization.
4. It is revealed that although companies keeps on investing on new Knowledge Management technologies, they do not realise remarkable results. In this regard, such technologies are not supposed to be assessed with respect to how they facilitate better management but rather on the extent to which they facilitate a company work effectively in the wider scale of social milieu. Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior researchIn respect the research topic, this article is important in that it stresses on the importance of integrating social considerations in the implementation of Knowledge Management technologies.
Subsequently, the authors have compared and proposed, based on facts, the need for a paradigm shift towards institutional perspective from the instrumental perspective in knowledge management. Limitations of article, e.g. location, industry, focus2. The researchers experienced difficulty in obtaining first-hand information from decision-making rooms. This inhibited shedding more light on how institutional power is exerted. Strength/s of articleAlthough organizations have been criticized because of investing in KM initiatives despite poor results, this case study overlooks this to state that such strategies should be assessed during evaluation of the said initiatives rather than considering them from an instrumental point of view.
Weakness/es of articleThis case study has singly focused on an IT-based firm hence its findings cannot be considerably compared to other sectors. Title and reference of articleElayne, C., Amar, A.D. and Maria, L. G. (2010). Knowledge management, strategy, and technology: A global snapshot. Journal of Enterprise InformationManagement, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 282-304. Type of articleResearch article Aim/purpose of articleThis research article has provided results of ‘a large comprehensive global survey of KM’ by explaining how a strategy in Knowledge Management may de build up so as to facilitate successful management in several institutions in various sectors.
Therefore, this article aims at redefining the Knowledge Management function and ways in which it should be executed. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]Sample size: in the survey, around 700 hundred respondents were sampled in two distinct pilots. The respondents were also sampled from various geographical locations via social networks. Instruments/ Design: this research was online-based survey in which one-hundred and ten questions divided into eleven sections although seven sections were optional.
Analysis: Quantitative data was analysed by applying seven-point Likert scale. Besides, the internal validity and reliability of the data was tested using Cronbach’s α (gold standard) whereas significance was tested using both parametric and non-parametric means. Findings1. In most organizations it was found that Knowledge Management is mostly structured thus facilitating their employees to locate it easily. 2. Knowledge Management initiatives in various organizations have not adequately necessitated the application of communities of practice so as to share knowledge. 3.
In organizations where Knowledge Management initiatives have been introduced, employees have been enabled to work in teams and improve on productivity. 4. Majority of the people had been using intranet as the basic channel to communicate internally in exchanging ideas, knowledge, and information. 5. Majority of the organizations were found not to apply any particular technology in implementing Knowledge Management. Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior researchIn the previous studies, researchers stressed on the significance of having strategy in Knowledge Management process. For instance, the author quotes Chase (1997) to have found that whereas institutions acknowledged the importance of managing, creating and transferring knowledge, they however failed in translating such competitive needs into organizational strategies.
In comparison, this article depicts how organizations have advanced from the aforementioned standpoint. Hence it supplements previous studies by showing significance of ensuring that formulated strategies are communicated well in order to facilitate clear understanding. Limitations of article, e.g. location, industry, focusThis research study has limitations in that it lacked a control study over the individuals who participated in the survey.
Besides, the sampling method that was used was not stratified and therefore the eventual results are not broad-based and in-depth as well. Strength/s of articleThe fact that this research study covered a wide geographical area means that it depicts how Knowledge Management is being used utilized across various organizations and countries. Therefore, this article is useful to both the academicians and practitioners in their capacity. Weakness/es of articleThis article has failed to discuss the worthiness of each form of knowledge exchange among the respondents and therefore one cannot argue with certainty that communal social network is either useful or not for sharing knowledge as compared to technology.
Title and reference of articleMirghani, M. (2008). Knowledge Management Technologies: The “continuumization” of knowledge management technology. . 38, no. 2, pp. 167-173. Type of articleViewpoint Aim/purpose of articleThis article has explained the need for different technology in Knowledge Management. Besides, it also evaluates the current trends in regard to Knowledge Management Technology showing how these new technologies may be may be integrated with Knowledge Management principles to achieve business objectives. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]This paper is based on review of literature in regard to Knowledge Management Technology; the importance of and also the noticeable new developments occurring in Knowledge Management Technology.
Besides, it has chronologically explained and analysed the ascendance of technology alongside Knowledge Management cognitive process. Findings1. The comments that Knowledge Management Technology is not that sufficient in delivering acceptable Knowledge Management p-processes. 2. Accordingly, the disparity between data and knowledge cannot be accommodated current technologies. 3.. Reason being Knowledge Management –Technology deals with knowledge continuum sets which are either single class without various technological requirements or distinct unrelated events.
Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior researchIn respect to the research topic, this article is significant in that it presents the data-information-knowledge continuum. In addition, it depicts how knowledge changes within this continuum and introduces a concept of law of diminishing returns in this context. Limitations of article, e.g. location, industry, focusThis article has only evaluated the impact of information technology in Knowledge Management thereby leaving out other factors for instance socio-cultural. Strength/s of articleThis paper has provided a roadmap in which Knowledge Management practitioners can promote Knowledge Management Technology functionalities with respect to the knowledge type required in their institutions so as to achieve competitive advantage.
Weakness/es of articleThough in this article the author has outlined and explained technologies applicable in KMT such as XML, he fails to focus beyond IT-based inputs fro instance socio-cultural factors. Besides, there is no case study to validate the impact of these computer-based technologies in improving KM within organizations. Title and reference of articleMirghani, M., Michael, S.
and Arthur, M. (2006). Knowledge management and information technology: can they work in perfect harmony. Journal Of Knowledge Management, vol. 10 no. 3, pp. 103-116. Type of articleLiterature ReviewAim/purpose of articleThis review article aims at imparting new insights in regard to information Technology’s role in Knowledge capture, extraction, personalization, and distribution. Besides, it pinpoints the strongholds and weaknesses of Information Technology in the context of knowledge Management and goes on further to explain reasons for ineffectiveness of technology as argued by most of Knowledge Management practitioners. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]Sample size: this review article is based on the four Knowledge Management pillars (leadership, organization, technology, and learning) that were developed by Stankosky.
Analysis: in their analysis of available literature, the authors analysed the implications of the implementing the four Knowledge Management pillars in pairs. Findings1. The authors found out that assimilation of Information Technology and representation of Knowledge dynamism, experience, intangibility, and other human-based cognitive dimensions are still debatable. 2. The currently available technologies are said to be incapable in resoling majority of the existing problems in knowledge management.
3. If Information Technology was to be effective in Knowledge Management. It has to slice its bivalent logic and become inter-operable in the authentic continuum. Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior researchCompared to the articles, this review brings into focus the four fundamental pillars of Knowledge Management. It has as well recognized the fact that integrating the for Knowledge Management pillars to come into play simultaneously is complex in different environments. Strength/s of articleThis article acknowledges the fact that applying existing Information Technology in Knowledge management whilst ignoring the socio-cultural aspects results in Knowledge dilution.
Therefore, the authors have stressed on the importance of considering applications that can offer humanistic cognitive dimensions and behavioural context. Besides, they have acknowledged that Knowledge Management is human driven and it is entirely based on community interaction, communication, and human relationships. Weakness/es of articleThis article focuses only on the higher levels of hierarchy in organizational management thus ignoring the implications of Knowledge Management initiatives at lower hierarchical levels in an organization. Title and reference of articleJohn, S. E., Duncan, S.
and Paul, M. C. (2005). . Journal Of Knowledge Management, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 113-125. Type of articleResearch paperAim/purpose of articleThis research article tries to answer the question relating to the roles –both the desired and actual- of technology in respect to Knowledge Managementsample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]The research study was carried out through workshops organized in ten different organizations. Five to ten participants were from the same organizations and they were required to attend every workshop. The total number of participants was seventy-eight from various professional fields within respective organizations.
Among the ten organizations, six were, three, and one were classified into for-profit, not for-profit, and public sector organizations respectively. In the analysis, the organizations were classified into three in respect to their preferred Knowledge Management solutions; technology, people, and process –based Findings1. Out of the ten sampled organizations, it was only three of them that had adopted robust-technology based solutions to counter-act Knowledge Management problems. 2. A number of the organizations emphasized on the application of general Information Technology based tools in supporting Knowledge Management initiatives instead of applying specific tools Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior researchThis article has identified the four tensions that influences decision about Knowledge Management and Information Technology.
The first being the tension between quality and quantity of Knowledge and Information being managed. Second is the tesion between decentralized and centralized organizations. The third is the tension between operational Knowledge and head office whereas the fourth between pushing and knowledge and information into the people or else giving them a chance to pull it on as is need basis.
Limitations of article, e.g. location, industry, focusIn this study, investigation was entirely restricted to only the organizations that were willing to provide an action fro their Knowledge Management initiatives. Therefore, the findings of this article represent various organizations on average basis instead of the particular implications of usage of software in these organizations. Strength/s of articleThis research article has provided data in a group context thus putting into consideration other previous research had not done this, it is an improvement. Weakness/es of articleThis research study was entirely based on UK-based organizations and hence it lacks variety of the wider geographical locations across the globe.
As previously stated, with the current Information Technology advancements, organizations have continued to invest substantial resources to improve on Knowledge Management initiatives, However, Carlo et al. (2009) has shown in their article that implementation of these technologies does not ultimately guarantee realization of good results in terms of gaining a competitive advantage in the same regard, Elayne et al. (2010) concurs with Carlo et al (2009) to state that most of the technologies employed by organizations are a failure when it comes to transferring and sharing knowledge.
Nevertheless, applying the four key pillars –leadership, organization, technology, and learning- of Knowledge Management as argued by Mirghani (2006) may come in handy to improve majority of the problems facing organizations. Therefore, this annotated bibliography can sufficiently help academicians and practitioners in understanding ways of implementing Knowledge Management in the context of an organization