Different authors write and present their ideas based on research or analysis that they have done. Voluminous articles, books, and reports to name some exists, which each trying to explain why something exists or what conditions surrounds the issue. This means that each article or book presented as clear thesis and aim and thus the aim of this paper is to discuss motivational based article. The article presented by Wilkinson, Orth, and Benfari titled Motivation theories: an integrated operational model is then one that is been summarized, critique and then its content applied to organizational settings.
Summary of ArticleIntroduction The role of managers is normally to ensure that everything runs effectively and that optimal efficiency is achieved in all activities within the organization. The managers achieve this by employing different motivational theories as well as motivational models. However, this is frustrating because each theory tends to give solution for one situation and not for another. This negative effect has been countered by the introduction of an integrated model. It is a unification of the motivational concepts and theories. It is an easier guide to help managers to carry out effective action and thus improve organizational performance.
It does this by bringing a clear view of how the different theories are interrelated. It also incorporates a guide on how the managers can take effective action and perform more productively. EvolutionMotivation theories explain stimuli reaction. This refers to people’s behavior and how they react to their environment. This is necessitated by the fact that the world is so complex today due to increased dependencies and increased diversities among the people. In the 1900s, motivation theory assumed that employer gave monetary rewards to workers in exchange of their effort time ad interest.
Taylor used this concept to explain motivation. However, with time it became evident that monetary rewards cannot buy commitment interest and motivation from workers. Behavioral scientists like Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, and Jay Lorsch were the main contributors towards the changing environments as far as motivation and performance were concerned. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y His X theory is called the classical theory or the Taylor theory. It emphasizes the need for formal and well established lines of authority is more dominant in less skilled and in labor intensive organizations.
Theory X assumes that the average human being hates work and thus should be controlled or coerced so as to put the adequate effort. It also assumes that he needs to be protected and needs security. His Y theory is called the “participative” school of management. This increases motivation and seeks to make workers perform more effectively in their jobs. This is normally used in laboratories, hospitals and advertising agencies among others. In this theory, members are involved in decision making as a measure of increasing motivation.
The theory assumes that physical and mental effort are expended so naturally by the workers and that the human beings and seek responsibility. Morse and Lorsch based their argument on the nature of task being performed. They conducted their study on four plants performing different tasks. They concluded that a more formalized and controlling organization was more effective than the less formalized was not.