Employment relations Employment relations refer to the interactions and relationships that exist within the labor market between employers and their employees and the government involvement in these relations (Cooper and Ellem, 2006). It dates back to the industrial revolution when for the first time industries were created to manufacture various goods and therefore needed a lot of workers to meet the labor demands. These workers usually worked under poor environmental conditions, were offered low wages, worked long hours, and performed the same task leading to monotonous work. These bad work conditions resulted in high employee turnover and numerous strikes by the workers that destabilized production.
These problems led to the development of industrial relations as a way of encouraging better labor-management relationships between employers and employees. As such, employment relations also known as industrial relations, has two major parts; managerial relations and market relations. Market relations are concerned with such issues as pay, hours of work, benefits, leave, and pensions that are entitled to the employee. Managerial relations determine what and how market relations are carried out within the industry (Cooper and Ellem, 2006).
It can therefore be stated that employment relations is concerned with a study of the regulations governing employment. Of great importance in these relations are the trade unions and the government that mediate how the market relations and managerial relations are carried out. A trade union usually represents the needs of a group of workers to a single employer. The unions usually engage in such activities as collective bargaining on behalf of the employees and legislation formation. The government influences industrial relations through the various laws and regulations that it enacts that regulates such issues as minimum wages, number of working hours, and working conditions which are of great importance to workers.
Employment relations in ChinaEmployment relations in china have been characterized by a rejection of independent types of associations for workers in support of a solitary, centralized trade union federation and the significance of state owned enterprises as the heart of productivity as well as distribution of basic goods and services. There have been numerous state owned enterprises in china which have received most of the support from the government as compared to collectively owned enterprises (Zhu, 1995.) Employment has been offered on either temporary or lifelong basis with most of the workers being permanent employees.
All aspects of their employment were controlled by the state labor personnel departments. Since the early 1940s, the enterprises were responsible for offering retirement benefits, housing, medical benefits, and social welfare to their employees (Yu, 2006.) Salaries and welfare were established through government policies. the settlement of the interests of the state, workers, and managers was realized within an administrative structure undertaken by the Communist Party.
The 1950s saw the foundations of employment relations laid in china as a result of the cultural evolution taking place at the time. The Chinese communist party created the All-China Federation of Trade unions to serve as the mediator between the state and workers with trade unions being under the control of the communist party serving a transitory role by transmitting the ideological policies of the communist party to the working class with the aim of securing their support.