The paper "How Asian Cultures Impact on Management Practices in Asia" is a good example of a management case study. Managing human resources in any organisation requires a proper understanding of the influence that both the internal and external environments of the business may have on its management practises. The internal environment refers to the internal work culture of the organisation while the external environment refers to the culture of the institution, enterprise, or the market or community within which the business is found. Such internal and external factors may include the market characteristics of the business, ownership status of the organisation, nature of the industry in question, paternalism, resource availability and power distance, amongst others.
Both of these forces in the environment are similarly, influenced by the physical and socio-political environments, including ecological, historical, legal, political and social forces. Both the socio-cultural environment and the business environment affect the internal work culture and Human Resource Management (HRM) practices. As Hofstede states, ‘ values in the workplace are affected by culture’ , and as such, this essay seeks to make use of Hofstede's five dimensions of culture to illustrate how culture affects the management practises in Asia. Definition of Terms Of important note is that the phrase ‘ Asian culture’ as used in this context refers to the common pattern of norms, belief, values and assumptions of behaviour of human groups in Asia, which are represented by the societies around the businesses in Asia, the institutions in Asia, and organisations in Asia.
In other words, the cultural variables that may influence managerial practice in Asia can manifest at three basic levels. At the most fundamental level, organisational culture is interpreted as a prototype of shared managerial values and assumptions that unswervingly affect managerial (HRM) practices.
These administrative beliefs and hypotheses relate to two basic organisational essentials that include: the undertakings or tasks in the organisation and the employees. The managerial beliefs that are linked with the tasks or undertakings within an organisation are dealing with how these tasks can be best accomplished and the nature of these tasks. Contrarily, assumptions that pertain to the organisational employees are linked with the nature and behaviour of these employees. In this essay, Asian cultures are represented by Japanese and China’ s cultures respectively.
Geert Hofstede’ s model of five dimensions of natural culture that help to explain fundamental value, belief, or assumption differences in culture and distinguish cultures with respect to five different dimensions that include The model distinguishes cultures with respect to five different dimensions that include Power Distance (PD), Individualism (IDV), Masculinity (MAS), Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), and Long Term Orientation (LTO) are used as defined and represented in the model below. Power Distance (PD) refers to the degree or extent of inequality that exists within a culture and is accepted in the midst of individuals with and without power.
It is used to illustrate the extent to which the less powerful members of organisations within Asia, or any other country, expect and accept that power is distributed in an equal manner. A high PD score within a society indicates that the community as a whole accepts an unequal power distribution in its management system and that individuals understand their place within the organisational structure or system. On the other hand, a low PD score illustrates that within that society, power is shared and well distributed, and as a result, individuals view themselves as equals.
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