Essays on The Management of Innovation Assignment

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The paper entitled "The Management of Innovation" is a perfect example of a Management Assignment. An organization structure is a diagram showing the structure of an organization as well as the relative positions and ranks existing (Mohr, 1982). It involves the activities taking place in an organization. This includes the allocation of tasks, coordination and supervision functions which are aimed at achieving the organization’ s objectives (Weber, 1948). The organizational structure of a business is determined by its objectives. The kind of structure an organization adopts will influence the performance and modes of performance (Jacobides, 2007).

The structure of an organization provides the basis upon which the operating procedures and routines of the organization are managed. Additionally, it determines the level of participation of the employees and other stakeholders in the decision making processes of the organization (Mohr, 1982). It ensures harmony between the various sections and departments of the organization. Appropriate choice of an organization structure is very vital for the performance of an organization. Wrong structures may decrease performance while correct choice improves the performance. An organization may choose to develop an organic or mechanistic organization structure based on its objectives.

In my interview with one of the supervisors, I realized that organizations use a combination of organic and mechanistic organization structures to enable them to achieve their objectives (Heckscher and Donnellon, 1994). The diagram and table below represent the organization structure and answers to the questionnaire based on the interview. I interviewed a supervisor of one of the local firms. Program social services health and nutrition clerical staff maintenance. Director staff supervisor staff. Teachers Cook. Assistant teachers. Aides. Volunteers.

Question Two. The questionnaire was obtained from Management in Practice: Experiential Challenge textbook page 401. The following responses were received from the manager whom I interviewed. Question Three. An organic organization structure is one where the employees are at equal levels. They have equal powers and none can be said to be in a higher rank than the other. In fact, they do not have any specific job descriptions or qualifications. Instead of individual leadership, such an organization advocates for group leadership thus promoting collective responsibility. Workers are not specialized in areas where they are best suited.

As long as one is employed, he/she should be ready to work in any department and perform any duties assigned to him/her from time to time. They cooperate in their duties and work together for the success of the organization. Authority is delegated and no one, in particular, wields power. One can never exactly predict what work he/she will be assigned and is never predictable (Burns and Stalker, 1961). Communication takes the horizontal format in such organizations. Much of verbal communication is used to pass information.

As a result, face to face communication is the order of the organization. Teamwork is encouraged and people work in shifts. The organization is concerned about the welfare of its employees which serves as an incentive for hard work and achievement. In a mechanistic organization structure, individuals are highly specialized. The employees are highly specialized and everyone concentrates in the task that he/she can do best. The chain of command is well defined and every employee is responsible for another office of higher ranking. The decision-making process is highly centralized. Only a few persons are charged with the responsibility of decision making.

Thereafter they communicate to people in lower ranks, that is, communication is vertical. Such communication is usually written and should be taken as it is. Rules are stringent and procedures should be followed all the time. The organization consists entirely of positions and a lot of bureaucracies exist (Jacobides, 2007). From the questionnaire above, the scores obtained were 47. This is close to 52 which signifies organic structure. It is also above 26 which signifies the mechanistic structure.

This is very close to the organic structure than the mechanistic one. Thus the kind of structure described in the questionnaire should be close to the organic structure. Yet the features outlined have a lot of similarities with the mechanistic structure. As a result, the structure of the organization I interviewed did not suit the nature of the organization’ s environment. The mechanistic organizations are known for their rigidity with regard to information flow and processes (Butler, 1986). It is suitable for the manufacturing industry where firms aim at enhancing productivity so as to increase their profits.

This kind of structure did not suit the interviewee’ s organization because the responses he gave represent a mechanistic rather than an organic structure. There are a number of reasons why it did not suit because of the following characteristics. In the first place, the organization aims at maximizing output. The stages of production are differentiated and the output in one stage affects other stages. Variations in output and employee characteristics should thus be minimized. In order to achieve this, the organization utilizes documented procedures that must be followed to the latter.

This ensures that employees and every stage of production are maximized. Secondly, manufacturing firms usually have fixed objectives, for example, maximization of sales or output. Therefore they restrict the free flow of information in order to discourage creativity as well as minimize information exchange. It should be noted that a mechanistic structure is very suitable for organizations that have achieved conditions of stable operations (Pugh, 1990). On the other hand, the organic structure suits the best unstable conditions that are changing and uncertain. In mechanistic structures, there are rigid hierarchies where authority and control are well defined.

Decision making is also left in the hands of a few people. Unlike in organic organizations where tasks are regularly revised to suit the changing needs of the organization. Inorganic firms problems are usually jointly solved. In addition, communications are more lateral though through informal networks. Everyone is committed to the achievement of the organization’ s objectives. This is not the case with mechanistic ones where communication is vertical and the workers pledge loyalty and obedience to superior personnel (Robbins and Judge, 2007). Organic structures tend to vest power in the hands of the employees.

They keep redefining the rules and procedures in the organization for selfish gains rather than the organization’ s gains. This may negatively affect the organization by negatively influencing customer relations. In addition, the collective responsibility that organic structures advocate for may not be able to respond to urgent and immediate (Pugh, 1990). This may result in a great loss to the company because such issues should be dealt with without delay. The other problem with organic structure is that it usually results in ineffective leadership.

It is difficult to lead the employees because they are leaders for themselves. Sometimes the employees even fail to incorporate the top management in the affairs of the organization. This results in the creation of communication barriers within the organization. The barrier is created between departments or in the policies of the organization (Weber, 1948).

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