Essays on Self-Determination in the Age of Reason Assignment

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The paper "Self-Determination in the Age of Reason" is a wonderful example of a Management Assignment. In the modern-day of an informed consumer, business ethics has become an important checkpoint for a good organization. Generally, the more ethical an organization is, the more likely it is to have a good image in the market, hence translating to more profits. After the year 2000, car companies flocked to China in a bid to help the country expand its automobile industry after indications that the China auto industry would grow tremendously.

The move was good for China and Asia’ s economy. However, there have been many critical issues with respect to the move leading to increased pollution and reliance on oil, a non- renewable energy. The following paper will look at the ethical issues surrounding this move with respect to the utilitarian, Kantianism justice Rawls, tights and normative ethical realism theories. The utilitarian theory was put forward by Stuart Mill. In his theory, Mill was of the thought that ethical things are those things that are meant to lead to happiness in the majority of people in the population (Pettit 1993, p. 230).

Therefore, according to Mill, something is not ethical if it leads to the opposite of happiness. Mill was able to develop his theory with the aid of Jeremy Bentham. In fact, Mill worked on Bentham’ s original work to come up with the theory. According to Bentham, the theory has four main aspects. The first aspect is that the theory acknowledged the role played by pain and happiness in a human being’ s life (Sweet 2008, p. 1). According to Bentham, pain is an indicator of a lack of happiness.

It is a form of suffering which occurs after bad consequences occur as a result of a bad action. Secondly, Bentham proposes that an action is gauged as being ethical or not according to the degree of pain or happiness which is likely to result in (Sweet 2008, p. 1). On this point, Bentham indicates that ethical action is that which results in a maximum amount of happiness. As a result of this, in the third aspect, Bentham equates pain with an evil action while pleasure is equated with a good deed.

In the last aspect, Bentham proposes that pain and happiness are measurable. Mill worked on Bentham’ s theory and came up with the utilitarian theory which had three main aspects. The first one is that the quantity of pain or happiness is not so central to the theory as the quality of the pain or happiness which is experienced. On the second aspect, Mill points out that the degree of happiness or pain cannot be measured, hence removing the illusion of high and low degree of pain or pleasure.

Lastly, Mill points out that ethical action is one that leads to n happiness to the largest amount of people (Palmer 1999, p. 33). Mill’ s perception of the utilitarian theory has been used more than Bentham’ s although the two are often considered together in matters which are confusing.

References

Almond, B., 1991. ‘Rights’ In A companion to Ethics, Blackwell, Oxford UK

Branmon, J., n.d. Kant: Self-Determination in the Age of Reason, Retrieved on 26th March 2012 from http://faculty.frostburg.edu/phil/forum/Kant.htm

Davis, N., 1993. ‘Contemporary deontology’ in A companion to ethics: Blackwell, Oxford UK

George., D., 1993. Competing with Integrity in International Business, pp. 8-22.

Garnaut, J., 2012. Toxic Air Blocks Out the Sun in Beijing, The Age World, Retrieved on 26th March 2012 from http://www.theage.com.au/world/toxic-air-blocks-out-the-sun-in-beijing-20130113-2cn72.html#ixzz2HpIWoOOX

Palmer, D., 1999. On the Viability of a Rule Utilitarianism, Journal of Value Inquiry,Vol. 33, no.1; pp. 31- 42

Pettit, P., 1993.’Consequentialism’. In A companion to ethics. Blackwell, Oxford ,UK

Prasad, A. 2008. Towards A System of Global Ethics in International Business: A Rawlsian Manifesto. Management Decision, Vol.46, no.8, pp.1166-1174.

Sweet, W., 2008. Jeremy Bentham (1748—1832), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved on 26th March 2012 from http://www.iep.utm.edu/bentham/

Velasquez, G., 2012. Business Ethics: Concepts & Cases (7th ed.). Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

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