Essays on Contributing Factors to European Immigrants in the 19th and 20th Centuries Case Study

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "Contributing Factors to European Immigrants in the 19th and 20th Centuries" is a good example of a macro and microeconomics case study.   The influx of European immigrants into the Newfoundland and neighboring regions in the 19th and 20th centuries prior to World War II emanated from several pushes and pull factors. Prior to their arrival, Labrador and Newfoundland acted as a seasonal fishing station for foreigners emigrating from Europe. Moreover, the arriving population did not inhabit the land permanently but rather used it on a fleeting basis. The incoming group consisted majorly of three categories, mainly the English, Scotts, and Irish.

The early years of the 19th century were marked by a dramatic shift from migratory fishery to resident migration as immigrants moved to settle in coastal colonies (Higgins, 2008). A rise in population exhibited in their mother countries coupled with economic hardship also played a part in this. Factors such as low harvests, the failure of local industries and loss of jobs due to rising levels of mechanization are some of the push factors that motivated early immigrants into moving into Labrador and Newfoundland.

The first section of this essay covers the significance of the various factors that contributed to large-scale migration from Europe in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The second part, on the other hand, discusses the economic consequences of such migration to the target countries. The Push Factors In day to day living, push factors compel individuals to move from their original habitats and settle in new and unchartered territories. These are contrary to pull factors on the basis that the said factors are those at the target point that lure people to move into such areas.

Push factors, on the other hand, are compelling forces from the point of origin that drive individuals away from their initial locations in search of better livelihoods. It is quite evident that the first three decades of the nineteenth century witnessed a massive influx of European immigrants into both Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1803, the population of Labrador and Newfoundland stood at approximately 19,000 individuals. This however quadrupled to almost 75,000 in 1836 (Higgins, 2008). It is evident that the region continued to record new incidences of immigration with this experience in the latter part of the century.

The scale was however not equivalent to the one noted in the first quarter of the century. Europeans formed a significant proportion of the number of immigrants. It was quite evident that a huge percentage of the moving population originated from either Southeast Ireland or Southwest England. The paper, therefore, concentrates on the push factors prevalent at the time in both Ireland and England that compelled individuals to move out of the two regions in massive numbers.

Economic and social stress suffices to be one of the significant push factors that drove both English and Irish residents to seek new habitations in Newfoundland and Labrador. Expanding populations and high rates of unemployment experienced in both countries caused a tremendous amount of pressure on both the social and economic fabrics of these lands. In England for example, the loss of jobs emanated mainly from the impact of industrialization and centralization on the economy. The artisan class situated in the Southwestern section of the country turned out to be the group worst affected by the twin problems of industrialization and centralization.

The Napoleonic Wars that took place between 1803 and 1815 also contributed to the increase in rates of unemployment and eventual job loss (Higgins, 2008). The negative contribution of the wars towards the employment sector stemmed from the collapsed trade duopoly that existed between Continental Europe and Britain under the French Foreign policy.

References

Gibson, C., & Kay, J. (2006). Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 2000. Population Division Working Paper No. 81. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Glynn, I. (2011). Emigration Across the Atlantic: Irish, Italian, and Swedes compared, 1800 – 1950. Retrieved from: http://ieg-ego.eu/en/threads/europe-on-the-road/economic-migration/irial-glynn-emigration-across-the-atlantic-irish-italians-and-swedes-compared-1800-1950

Gráda, C. Ó. (1975). The Investment Behaviour of Irish Landlords 1850-75: Some Preliminary Findings. The Agricultural History Review, 23(2), 139-155.

Higgins, J. (2008). Push and Pull Factors. Heritage. Retrieved from: http://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/society/push-pull-factors.php

Hirschman, C. (2006). The Impact of Immigration on American Society: Looking Backward to the Future. Retrieved from: http://borderbattles.ssrc.org/Hirschman/printable.html

Hirschman, C., & Mogford, E. (2009). Immigration and the American industrial revolution from 1880 to 1920. Social science research, 38(4), 897-920.

Peri, G. (2013). Immigration: The Economic Benefits of Migration. Berkeley Review of Latin American Studies.

Withers, G. (2002). The economics of immigration. Graduate Program in Public Policy, Australian National University.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us