Measuring soil erodibility to four of British soils and the effects of rainfall characteristics, duration and soil properties on the extendibility factor – Assignment Example

Measuring soil erodibility to four of British soils and the effects of rainfall characteristics, duration and soil properties on the extendibility factor
Measuring Soil Erodibility to Four of British Soils and the Effects of Rainfall Characteristics, Duration and Soil Properties on the Extendibility Factor
Soil erodibility is a relevant factor in that it measures soil susceptibility to erosion and an essential parameter required for the prediction of soil erosion. Apart from the factor of soil erodible, RUSLE and USLE equations determines using various formulas employed in the soil packaging parameters (Khairi, 2011). For example, Soil erodible is an elaborate description of soil erosion for giving reference conditions influenced by different soil properties controlling the different sub processes. However, it is significant of understand the difference between soil erodible and soil erosion. While soil erosion affects factors such as plant cover, slope length and degree, rainfall characteristics and management of land, soil erodible depends on the inherent soil properties (Khairi, 2011).
Soils found under the same environmental conditions have different amounts of soil loss. The influence of the soil properties on soil erosion can be discovered through soil erodible; the measure carried on soil erodible is through investigating selected properties of soil. This is entirely independent of the effect of environmental factors affects the rainfall characteristics, and hence not considered. There are four types of British soils in which soil erodible can be estimated and under different soil associations from different locations in the UK. They soil associations are Rivington, Crewe, Everingham, and Andoverb. The soil sub groups are typical brown earth, pelo- stagnogley, typical cambic gley, and brown rendzina (TheAbura, 2009).
Soil association description
1. Rivington
These soils are moderately stony, and classified as typical brown earths well drained. On top of this, these soils have hard sandstone, which varies between 50 and 80 centimeters. However, the main differentiating characteristics are:
1.1 Sand fraction dominated by dry and medium sand.
1.2 Coarse loam A and B horizons.
1.3 Weathering sand stone within 80 centimeters (Reeve, 1975), in the following brief profile description: 1.31 0.20 centimeters Apart
1.31Dark grayish brown, slightly or moderately stony, sandy loam
1.33 20-50 centimeters Bw
1.34 Yellowish brown, slightly or moderately stony, sandy loam; weak medium singular blocky structure
1.35 Hard or soft stone or extremely sandy loam, Payton and Palmer (1990).
1.4 This association consists of stanogley soils in reddish, stoneless till or clay. The targeted soil under this association classified as pelo-stagnoley soils where the main characteristics of this soil as the following:
Top soil- stoneless clay or clay loam: The main soil characteristics are that this soil is semi-permeable seasonally water logged prominently mottled reddish stoneless clays locally with a light, loamy topsoil brownish medium over clays; it has a profile description:
1.5 0-20 centimeters
1.6 Dark grayish brown, stoneless clay loam or clay 20-50 cm Bg1
1.7 Reddish brown, stoneless clay; strong, coarse prismatic structure, common calcium carbonate
2. Everingham
These are ground water gley soil that have a unique topsoil and a Bg horizon, formed and in a Pleistocene deposit. They are usually a horizon usually passes downwards into a permeable gleyed horizon with a brief description of the soil profile, Avery (1982). They include:
2.1 0-30 centimeters Ap dark brown, stoneless loamy powdery sand
2.2 30-55 centimeters-Bg
2.3 Pale brown mottled, stoneless loamy dry sand; very weak light angular blocky structure
2.4 55-100 centimeters Cg
2.5 Light yellowish brown, mottled stoneless loamy powdery sand; single grain structure.
4. Andover
The soil is subgroup is Brown rendzina Ap horizons have a well developed sub-angular blocky structure. The underlying chalk is usually fairly hard and joint but soft, and massive marly bands are common (Khairi, 2011). In addition, some profiles have a transitional horizon which is 10 centimeters thick underneath the Ap which is usually extremely calcareous, and the main characteristics to the soil are:
4.1 dry loamy or dry silty A horizon
4.2 content or flint stones greater than one percent
4.3 Solid chalk above 35 centimeters
4.4 Mainly brown colors. Soil Survey Record (1978)
Rainfall characteristics
It aims at predicting the soil erodibility for four British soils under tree different durations and three different intensities (Aburas, 2009). He viewed a direct relationship between means that an increase in pressure leads to an increase of the rainfall received on the square centimeter unit. Correlation and regression analysis analyzes the relation between the soil erodibility values and soil properties through using a set of soil parameters (Khairi, 2011).
The measure of a rainfall stimulator is to create a rainfall event as same as the natural rainfall event in spite of its complexity to stimulate the same interaction between the natural rainfall properties such as drop velocity, drop size, and large topographical variation.
In conclusion, different types of soils have different intensity of soil erodibility. This is affected rainfall intensities and rainfall durations. The different soil associations in UK, prove this.
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Khairi, N. M., 2011. Measuring Soil Erodibility to four of British Soil and the effect of Rainfall Characteristics, Duration, and Soil Properties on the Erodibility factor.