DRAFTPLEASE REVIEWAWARENESS-RAISING PROJECTCRUDE CAN BE RUDEMind Your SafetyRationaleIn one article on the web about emergency crews training on potential crash threat, “Dubai faces an increasing risk of a disastrous fire because of the popularity of liquid petroleum gas”. Consequently, citizens are warned of a potential disaster if one of the trucks carrying this type of petroleum products overturned in urban areas. However, this potential disaster is considerably small compared to the disaster posed by oil refineries. For one thing, oil refineries produce a wide range of air and water emissions that can be hazardous to the environment.
Some of these are contaminants in the original crude oil, while others are a result of refinery processes and operations. Refinery operations are complex systems and there are numerous dangers associated with inhalation, chemical exposures, fire and explosions. It is therefore necessary that people working in and around this area are aware of prevention and control procedures. Aims and ObjectivesThe awareness-raising campaign intends to inform and educate the population about the hazards posed by oil production or operation. It is also to promote disaster and safety consciousness.
Through media, the campaign, hoped to reach its objective such as increased participation or collaborative action, effective information sharing and learning, and reduce the likelihood of disaster. Target AudiencesThe most important targets of ‘CRUDE CAN BE RUDE’ are the people working and living near the installation. They are adult and children, workers, disabled or senior citizens living in their homes, and those who are frequently visiting the area for business or for other reasons. Discussion of Need to Raise AwarenessInstitutions and public education programs are vital to reducing losses from disasters.
Risk assessment is an essential component of any hazard or disaster management planning. Disaster forecasting and warning, and dissemination of this information play a pivotal role for saving lives, property, and crops. Accuracy is vital element of forecasting to maintain public confidence since inaccurate or partially accurate forecasting can cause more damage that reduction of losses (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, p. 346). According to Spiteri (1997, p. 6), disaster reduction can only be demonstrated by practical activities in organizations and communities where people, companies, and customer alike, are threatened by disaster risks.
Therefore, specific programmes are needed to be identified and pursued. These include hazard and risk assessments, public education and awareness, transfer of existing knowledge and technology, use of information, early warning and communication systems, development and coordination of relationships among policy-makers, managers, and technical capacities, mobilization and sustained commitment of human and material resources. Reductions are normally focused specifically on all aspects of preventive action. These range from general awareness-raising for the need for disaster reduction and promotional activities at all levels, to improved research, scientific and technological institution building and networking, as well as to the development of improved methodologies for impact assessment, risk analysis, early warning and application of preventive measures. The constructivist approach in communication sciences reinforces the idea that the citizen creates his or her own information on environmental issues, thus also putting the meaning of large-scale campaigns into a certain perspective.
Existing awareness-raising campaigns do not set people thinking or talking. Their value may be translated into agenda setting but novelty is an important aspect if this is to be achieved. However, many environmental messages are no longer novel, meaning that in the long-term citizen commitment cannot be guaranteed.
Thus, in order to guarantee, citizens have to be approached in a different way, where they assume a more active role (Bartels and Nelissen 2002, p. 34). There is a need for better risk perception and public awareness raising measures, couple with close community participation, to inform and enable citizens to be active and supportive partners in all risk management programmes (Thorne et. al. 2007, sp. 484).