111691,4621169%1131%110.3311–0.171121131166,807116.7%1193.3%111.00110.5114116,210110.62%1199.38%111.33110.8311511233110.023%1199.977%111.67111.17116123.4120.00034%1299.99966%122.00121.512712Six Sigma training12Lean manufacturing12Lean manufacturing is a comprehensive, unified set of philosophisies, guidelines, rules, techniques and tools for optimizing and improving discrete processes. While lean was founded in huge volume, Lean principles, manufacturing that is repetitive for automotive industry sector and benefit apply to all processes which include service, health care, sales, marketing, high tech and fast foods. Owing to this, some refer to it as Lean Thinking, as opposed to the restrictive title of lean manufacturing. Lean manufacturing commenced as the production system of Toyota, which was developed by Toyota Motor Car Company. 12Toyota initially called Toyoda commenced by manufacturing looms for cloth manufacturing and then later on branched into bicycles.
In due time Toyota embarked on manufacture of engines, trucks, cars, and small delivery vehicle. Management decisions that were poor nearly drove the company into bankruptcy. It was very shameful to the management. The company name was changed from Toyoda to Toyota, workers were subsequently granted life long employment, and an improvement program that was aggressive was embarked on to try as much as possible to work their way back from almost oblivion.
Soon enough techniques and tools started to come up that eased the frustrations that come with inefficient, old ways and permitted Toyota to achieve its Toyota Production System goals. 12Engineers of Toyota looked forward to Taylor (inventor of Industrial Engineering and Modern Management techniques), Dr. W. Deming (Father of Modern Quality Management), and Henry Ford (inventor of the assembly lines). Founded on these early beginnings, techniques were honed, improved and refined in all areas. With the introduction of the Volkswagen in the North American market in the 1960s, and Toyota in 1970s, a world recession, the automotive industry in America was in for de-stabilization and major changes.
Watchdogs of automotive in North America were looking for an explanation as to how Toyota would manufacture a car, subsequently ship it to North America, and sell it cheaper and in faster way as compared to domestically manufactured vehicles. 13Import restrictions and huge import tariffs did not prevent the flow the flow of desirable but cheap cars. Over a period of time the vehicle quality defined by their longevity and reliability began to increase at a rapid rate.
The Japanese vehicles innovated rapidly at extreme rate, while on the other hand N. American built and designed vehicles intended to change at a very slow rater. Womack came up with the phrase ‘Lean Manufacturing’ so as to persuade its adoption of Toyota Production System. Lean manufacturing was primary targeted to shorten the time between shipment and the order of the customer. If successfully applied it has resulted in shorter lead time of production, profitability that is greatly enhanced, and inventories that are greatly enhanced.
These techniques also ensure enhanced reliability, substantial reduction in costs and improved flexibility (Conner, 2004). 13How they might help the business14Time can be created because of improved method of production and consequently shorter lead time. This the duration of time between which a customer orders for a product and the time the product is delivered to him. Owing to efficient production there is no wastage and few goods on none at all are held in form of inventory. One role of lean manufacturing is to eliminate inventory. The widgets in the Arrod Widget Company will be produced in the most efficient manner.
Further more there will be no hold up of material in terms of work-in-progress. This will go along way at helping the company to cut on cost. In this case waste is not seen only in terms of material-if goods are held in form inventory they take up space that could be used to do something else. Besides sometimes the company will lose money in terms of rent if it hires a building. Generally total costs are greatly reduced since the company will respond to only customer demand.
Cases of overproduction will be avoided and the company incurring storage costs from high levels of inventory will be a thing of the past (Tennant, 2001). 14