Bus 633 final exam Question The BUS 633 has been of utter significance in my personal development as well as changing my world perception and cultural beliefs. Noteworthy, we were born in this world devoid of meaning; our culture gives meaning to our experience and defines our overall integration and amalgamation. From the readings in Nakayama, I got a clear perception of the biracial model which bolstered my comprehension of duality, self-confidence, and heightened my conscious on the esteemed differences that exists among Americans. As the class commenced, my identity was fundamentally unexamined but through the various evaluations on cultural interactions and cross-border communications, I can now confidently proclaim of being in the integration stage where I accept my own culture as well as that of others.
This kind of cultural awakening can be attributed to readings from Phatak (International Management), Gene Kohn’s video on managing cultural diversity and Martin, Nakayama, (Experiencing Intercultural Communication, 4th Ed). Readings such as Global Market and R&D, Global HR Management, Differences in Culture, Leading, negotiation and decision-making Across Cultures and Borders, were imperative in my development.
Ethnocentrism, predisposition, and stereotyping that were profound in me and my colleagues were candidly scrapped-out. Additionally, the class informed me that negative evaluations and overgeneralization narrows down an individual’s perception and might jeopardize cross-border communication. However, my personal development shall not sojourn with the completion of the BUS 633 class. I will continuously engage myself with activities that will bolster my development. These include conducting further research on business communication, cultural interactions, beliefs and also taking an active part in international business activities. This includes forming groups with people from different social, economic, and political backgrounds.
Undertaking the aforementioned practices will enhance my development and uphold the egalitarianism and inclusion values highly valued by the contemporary American society. Question 4 Whether dealing with customers, colleagues, contractors, suppliers or other departments, professionals must possess negotiation skills since negotiation is an inescapable component in business. The negotiation process comprises of several stages whose collation might differ according to cultural models. a). preparation; is the first phase in conducting negotiations. During preparation stage, an individual acquires all the facts, documentation, information and data required to establish an agreement.
When negotiating contract specifics with other parties, a project administrator must gather the time scale, necessary phases, resource requirements, and breakdown of deliverables. b). Relationship building; during negotiations, the parties must portray an unwavering commitment to strengthen the existing or create a new relationship that will guarantee a successful negotiation (Martin & Nakayama 128). For instance, prior to the trip to japan, we constantly kept the other party updated about our progress and constantly shared important details that portrayed our goodwill. c).
Exchange of information related to the task; during this stage, necessary details are unveiled to the other party to augment efficiency and moderate frustration by ascertaining that pertinent information is availed to both parties and proper deliberations are made before the conference. During this phase we exchanged environmental and cultural considerations, company standards, policies and rules that strengthened our cooperation before the bargaining date. d). Bargaining; here, most interaction between the negotiating parties takes place and various negotiation tactics and styles are displayed as individuals strive to make their case.
Listening and responding professionally and objectively dominate this phase. During this phase, important facts and opinions are exchanged, examined and evaluated to determine the best solution to the prevailing situation. e). Closing the deal; after collective bargaining, a consensus is reached. The terms and conditions of the contract lawfully seals and binds the involved parties into the result of the agreement. For instance, we agreed to supply stationery worth $1500 to Ajinomoto Inc. within a period of 6 months. f). Implementing the agreement; it is the final phase in a negotiation process.
The outcomes of the negotiation are acted upon (implemented). For instance, the stationery is supplied to Ajinomoto Inc. Question 5 Culture shock is the bewilderment felt by an individual as a result of experiencing a new and different way of life brought about by movement into another country or environment. Common problems associated with it include generation gap, information gap, infinite regress, language barrier and monotony. Cultural shock goes through 5 successive stages namely; a). Honeymoon phase; in this phase, individuals are excited and fascinated with the new culture and actually perceive the differences between their own and the new culture as romantic.
The minor glitches are disregarded and individuals perceive the new experience as an opportunity to learn new aspects. b). Negotiation stage; after being in a new culture for some time, cultural differences become ostensible and creates a feeling of nervousness. The initial enthusiasm fades away and gives way for hostile events that are perceived as belligerent and strange and one strives to fight back (Hill 281). For instance, an American entrepreneur who has opened a business in japan might make negative remarks or unwarranted jokes about the Japanese culture as a strategy to fight the cultural shock and frustrations therein.
c). Adjustment stage; the deleterious attitude previously held about a culture transforms to a more positive one. A person starts appreciating the new culture, and things become “normal”. Frustration fades and one starts feeling comfortable in the new culture. The spouse of an expatriate should play an imperative role during this phase to ensure the expatriate efficaciously adjust to the new culture (Phatak et al 264).
For instance, the spouse should provide morale, psychological and financial support required by the expatriate to adjust to the new culture. The spouse should help the expatriate to adjust by showing them that the new culture is good and still appropriate for activities such as businesses to thrive in. d). Mastery phase; an individual accepts the new culture and adapts to it. An individual feels free to participate in the host culture and perceive themselves to be part of it. Although an American might feel comfortable and part of the Japanese society when operating in japan, important aspects such as original language and ascents are retained.
However, it does not affect their interaction with the new culture; life becomes bearable despite the previous challenges. e). Reentry shock; after being accustomed to a new culture, if an individual returns to their home country, they might find their original culture as being strange, awkward and challenging to fit into. Question 6 a). Regarding Gene Kohn’s case, I would have chosen to maintain the team and convince the Japanese that it was the best team that we could ever have.
This would have a major advantage of improving morale among the project participants as it would have conveniently portrayed that the CEO embraces diversity and inclusion (Stanford University 1). However, the stubborn nature of the Japanese might derail the success of the project. The option of removing the woman from the project management team and replace her with a male would have liquefied the embarrassment that the Japanese team members had (Stanford University 1). However, it could have jeopardized the successfulness of the project by dwindling to assimilate diverse philosophies and management skills.
It would also have ruined Kohn Pedersen Fox’s reputation. The option of scrapping the entire project would only have resolved the prevalent conflict and discomfiture at the expense of a lost project. b). One should only accede to a client’s needs if such needs do not affect the company’s reputation, policies and objectives. Any needs that are against ethical beliefs should also be disregarded. c). As a CEO, I would only compromise the organization’s values when the situation/circumstance necessitates such a change. Moreover, the change should be in line with the surrounding culture.
d). before going into a project in a different culture, all participants must be acquitted and given the relevant facts such as the cultural differences and teach them on how to adapt to the new culture. e). The clients will effectively comprehend the CEO’s decision if the CEO officiously elucidate the factors and reasons that guided his decision. For instance, he should explain how scrapping the entire team would ruin the company’s reputation. Works Cited Hill, C W. International business: Competing in the global marketplace: postscript 2001.
Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print. Martin, J N., and T. K. Nakayama. Experiencing intercultural communication: An introduction. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print. Phatak, A V., R. S. Bhagat, and R. J. Kashlak. International management: Managing in a diverse and dynamic global environment. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2005. Print. Stanford University. N.p. , 25 Feb. 2013. Web. .