The paper 'Suitable Ethical Code for the Client' is a great example of a Business Assignment. The definition of the term ethics dates back to Plato and Aristotle. Ethics was derived from a Greek word, ethnos, meaning character, conduct, and/or customs (Mahdavi 2009). It concerns what values and morals are considered right by individuals and society at large. Ethics help individuals and organizations to decide what is good and right or bad and wrong in any particular situation (Mahdavi 2009). The background and development of theoretical ethical approaches date back in the 1960s.
During this period, there was an increase in social unrest in the workplace as employees had poor relationships with management. Employees were more loyal to ideas than to their employers (PPT 2). As a result companies in this decade began to establish codes of conduct and value statements. It is during this period that the movement of social responsibility was established and business entities began to handle issues of ethics through personnel or legal departments. In the 1970s, the ethical climate was characterized by an increase in scandals by contractors and major industries.
The level of unemployment became high and environmental concerns also increased. This period was characterized by an increase in human rights issues, such as low wages, forced labor, and unsafe practices (PPT 2). During this period, the Ethics Resource Center (ERC) was established in 1977, and companies were required to comply with laws governing ethics. In the same year, Federal Corrupt Practices Act was passed. Consequently, ethics was made values-centered instead of being compliance-oriented (PPT 2). The social contract between employees and employers was eventually redefined in the 1980s.
In order to avoid a series of scandals, defense contractors were expected to conform to strict rules. Although health care ethics was insisted during this period, employees’ attitudes about loyalty to their employers disappeared as corporations downsized (PPT 2). Ethical dilemmas include issues of transparency, deceptive advertising, financial fraud and bribes, and illegal contracting practices. In 1980, ERC established the U. S. Code of Ethics for Government Service, and in 1985 it formed the first office of business ethics at General Dynamics. Additionally, the Defense Industry Initiative was developed and ombudsman positions were created in some companies, as well as False Claims Act focusing on government contracting came to live (PPT 2). The issues of business ethics became profound in the 1990s as global expansion introduced new ethical problems.
The concerns about bribes, child labor, and environmental issues intensified. The emergency of the Internet increased the challenge of culture across borders. This period witnessed several developments in business ethics. The ERC established international business ethics centers while Federal Sentencing Guidelines were developed in 1991. In addition, the Global Sullivan Principles were instituted in 1999 (PPT 2).
Today, companies face more ethical dilemmas, such as cybercrime, and loss of privacy, financial mismanagement, privacy issues, and intellectual property theft. Some of the ethical issues are likely to be encountered by Primark. During this decade, anti-corruption efforts are high and there are stronger ethical safeguards that control companies, such as Primark. There is more emphasis on corporate social responsibility and integrity management in organizations.
Broni, J. V. G, 2010. Ethical dimensions in the conduct of business: Business ethics, corporate social responsibility and the law. The" ethics in business" as a sense of business ethics. In International Conference on Applied Economics–ICOAE (p. 795).
Greasley, K, Bryman, A, Dainty, A, Price, A, Naismith, N and Soetanto, R, 2008. Understanding empowerment from an employee perspective: what does it mean and do they want it?. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 14, no. 1 and 2, pp. 39-55.
Mahdavi, I, 2009. International business ethics: strategies and responsibilities. Journal of Academic & Business Ethics, vol. 2, pp. 1-6.
Michelle, M.L, 2011. Reacting to Bad Publicity over Sweat Shop Issue: The Case of Primark. Retrieved on April 30, 2015 from https://journalofinternationalmanagement.wordpress.com/2011/05/16/reacting-to-bad-publicity-over-sweat-shop-issue-the-case-of-primar
Newell, S, 2007. Business Ethics. Journal:“QFINANCE.
PowerPoint (PPT) 1, Understanding Ethics
PowerPoint (PPT) 2, Defining Business Ethics
PowerPoint (PPT) 4, Corporate Social Responsibility
Raza, A and Ramzan, M, 2013. Determinants of Business Ethics on Multinational and Local Organizations. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, vol. 4, no. 4.
Scholl, R.W, 2008. Ethical decision making and moral behavior. University of Island, Kingston.
The guardian, 2013. Primark: How ethical are your clothes? Retrieved on April 30, 2015 from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/oct/06/ethical-high-street-clothes-primark