The paper "PESTEL as a Tool and Technique of Analysis" is a great example of a business article. Political: From the case study, it is obvious that the liberal market environment gave consumers who would otherwise shop at M& S more choices in the form of alternative retailers. Still, Johnson and Collier (2011) imply that even when it was not performing as well as its shareholders would have liked; M& S still had to meet its tax obligations. Economic: Consumers’ spending habits are generally dictated by the economic environment. A well-performing economy generally inspires more spending by consumers.
During the 2008/2009 economic recession, however, Johnson and Collier (2011) observe that M& S performed impressively, despite the cautionary type of spending seen in consumers. Social: From the case study, it is apparent that M& S enjoys goodwill from a majority of British shoppers. However, it is also clear that trends in society such as Corporate Social Responsibility have had an effect on M& S. As a result, more demanding innovations (e. g. the introduction of the reusable carrier bags), the removal of artificial colours from food items, and the adoption of eco-friendly production processes are now some of the social demands that M& S has to deliver to its customers. Technological: The Internet is among the technological innovations that M& S has had to embrace.
Online sales are increasingly popular and in 2007, the case study indicates that M& S launched the M& S Direct website, which involved working with Amazon. com in order to fully utilise the web platform as a sales avenue. Environmental: The case study indicates that M& S pays attention to the ethical sourcing of supplies; enhancing consumers’ awareness about ethical issues in fashion- e. g.
recycling; and stocking fair trade items among other initiatives. In 2007, the retailer launched a five-year plan dubbed ‘ Plan A’ , whose objective was to enhance the business’ s environmental sustainability. Legal: In the case study, it is evident that M& S has had no major problems engaging in foreign trade. As such, the legal environment in which the retailer carries out foreign trade appears to be favourable. The investment regulations in some of its supply markets – e.g. Singapore- appear to be favourable to the retailer too.
Guthrie, J 2011, ‘Dapper Dutchman has yet to pass M&S crisis test’, The Financial Times, viewed 11 May 2013,
Houston, A & Dockstader, S. L 2002, ‘Total quality leadership: a primer’, Total Quality Leadership Office, no. 97, pp. 1-71.
Johnson, P & Collier, N 2011, ‘Marks and Spencer plc: where next for the icon of British retailing?- Case study’, In Cummings & Wilson (Eds.), Strategy as orientation and animation, John-Wiley & Sons, London. pp. 650-657.
M&S 2013, 'Annual report 2012', viewed 11 May 2013,
Muckstadt, J A., Murray, D H, Rappold, J A & Collins, D E 2003, ‘The five principles of supply chain management: An innovative approach to managing uncertainty’, Cayuga Partners White Paper, pp. 1-8.
Ohmae, K 1991, The mind of a strategist: The art of Japanese business, McGraw Hill, New York.
Rose, S 2007, ‘Back in fashion: How we’re reviving a British icon’, Harvard Business Review, May, pp. 51-58.