Essays on Marketing Strategies of Different Sports Companies and Supporting Bodies in Australia Case Study

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The paper "Marketing Strategies of Different Sports Companies and Supporting Bodies in Australia" is an outstanding example of a marketing case study.   From a consumer behavior, perspective sports supporters remain the driving force underlying all the motives and marketing strategies of different sports companies and supporting bodies in Australia. Motives that drive sports spectators have significant weight in determining whether they become true fans of the sport or remain mere spectators. Sports literature reports organizations’ marketing influencing a major part of the sports context, as well as the perception of the real game to spectators.

Speaking from a sports marketers’ perspective I represent organizations that are daily striving to build up the consumers’ behavior in developing the fandom aspect in sports. The main challenge faced by a majority of the Australian sports marketing organizations involves enhancing consumers’ loyalty among sports spectators; so that they can change from being mere spectators with divided loyalty to true fans. A loyal fan will stay loyal and follow the same sport over time, hence generating more revenue for the teams compared to a spectator with divided loyalties (Van Schaik, 2014).

Therefore, this report illustrates what sports organizations can do to encourage fandom among sports spectators. Literature Review While a majority of sports organizations recognize the construct of consumer loyalty, the variables and conditions that foster sports spectators’ loyalty to certain sports, the approach to the same issue still varies. Based on the context of sports consumption Oliver (1999 p. 35) asserted that loyalty for a sport may differ from the loyalty the same individual has over the brand and products of the same sport. Further research into leisure setting revealed that fandom can only get created through a close interaction between an individual’ s psychological commitment and their involvement in the particular sport.

This relationship builds the consumers’ loyalty as well as customer retention (Bennet & Bove, 2002 p. 29). Also despite the loyalty construct gaining high recognition in the aspect of sports fandom, there exist several variables that influence the same under different sporting environments. Understanding the influence of the same has continued to become a tricky issue especially in the management of soccer spectators and fans in Australia and other European countries. Funk & James, (2001 p. 132) adopted the leisure definition of involvement to examine the involvement of sports spectators and fans.

Their understanding of this aspect points towards individual motivation, arousal or interest towards a certain sport or activity, but the research failed to generate a better explanation for such a stimulus. The majority of researchers even went further to research on involvement from a multidimensional perspective and found out that the need for self-expression and centrality; remain the main variables in involvement that influences consumers’ loyalty in sport.

Although involvement remains a widely utilized construct in leisure settings, its application to sports fandom has not received much attention and there still exists empirical research limitations. Iwasaki and Havitz’ s (2004 p. 48)) theoretical model further suggests that the limitations exist in the relationship between involvement, commitment and consumer loyalty in the context of sports fans (Van Schaik, 2014). In view of psychological commitment, researchers have also suggested that commitment to a specific sports team reflects highly on the sports fan attitude (Funk & James, 2001 p. 146). According to Heere and Dickson (2008 p. 229), current marketing research into the sports fandom revealed that attitudinal loyalty and psychological commitment play a very significant role in influencing the loyalty of sports spectators to becoming longtime fans.

Heere and Dickson (2008 p. 230) further differentiated commitment from attitudinal loyalty by defining attitudinal loyalty as the interaction between negative external changes in a spectator’ s environment and the internal psychological connection of that individual. For instance, the change in the sporting environment may negatively influence the consumer’ s behavior based on attitude change. The spectator would less likely want to remain loyal to a team that plays overseas than their home team.

References

Bennett, R., & Bove, L. (2002). Identifying the key issues for measuring loyalty. Australasian Journal of Market Research, 9(2), 27-44

Cherry, K. (2013). Theories of Motivation in Psychology. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/tp/theories-of-motivation.htm

Funk, D.C., & James, J. (2001). The Psychological Continuum Model: A conceptual framework for understanding an individual’s psychological connection to sport. Sport Management Review, 4(2), 119-150.

Heere, B., & Dickson, G. (2008). Measuring Attitudinal Loyalty: Separating the Terms of Affective Commitment and Attitudinal Loyalty, Journal of Sport Management, 22(2), 227–239.

Humphries, C., & Smith, A. (2006). Sport fandom as an occupation: Understanding the sport consumer through the lens of occupational science. Int. J. Sport Management and Marketing,, 1(4). Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://aaronctsmith.com/Article PDFs/Humphries IJSMM.pdf

Iwasaki, Y., & Havitz, M.E. (2004). Examining relationships between leisure involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty to a recreation agency. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(1), 45-72.

Moschis, G.P., Churchill, G.A. (1978). Consumer socialization: A theoretical and empirical analysis. Journal of Marketing Research, 15(4), 599-609.

Oliver, R.L. (1999) Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63, (Special Issue), 33-44.

Van Schaik, T. (2014). The psychology of social sports fans: What makes them so crazy? Sports Networker Retrived May 12, 2015 from http://www.sportsnetworker.com/2012/02/15/the-psychology-of-sports-fans-what-makes- them-so-crazy/,

Zaichkowsky, J.L. (1985). Measuring the involvement construct. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(3), 341-352.

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