Capacity Building for Community Based Tourism Table of Contents Recommendations for Regional or Destination Planners 4 Case Study 7 Analysis of the case study 8 Conclusion 11 References 12 Introduction Tourism has been described as a key factor for the growth of trade, industry and wealth in the current economy. There are increasing concerns toward the harmful impacts of the industry on home economies, communal and intellectual systems and expected resources. The different kind of studies and researches that are conducted in this particular industry for finding out the community based capacity have put forward many number of approaches in the repackaging usual products.
Though still it is in the stage of debate but research is going on in this arena to find approaches to tourism that will minimize the negative impact and offer payback for a broad range of products in different regions. The East Asia and the Pacific are the fastest developing regions, with a growth rate of 14.7 % (between 1999 and 2000). It was observed that the regions experienced an increase of 14 million tourist arrivals (WTO 2001). Literature Review Tourism as a business is rising speedily in developing countries.
Tourism is at the same time portrayed as a destructive force of culture, discouragement of economic and social norms, social structure and the stripping of communities of individualism. The discussion is all about the process of community capacity (individual, community, and organizational) building based upon this industry in the European regions (Aref & Redzun, 2008). Assessing magnitude of community capacity building is a vital step in increasing community strategies to accomplish tourism development. The purpose of this study is to discover the idea and scope of community capacity building with respect to tourism development.
(Aref & Et. Al., 2010). Europe is frequently referred as a tourist delight. Each and every nation which comes under the continent of Europe is part of key global tourist hub. Many people coming from diverse European countries and also from other continents, tour to the diverse countries and cities in Europe, because there is much to observe and be acquainted with about the history of the continent. Most of the European nation’s tourism industry is reasonably consistent and major contributing sectors of their economy (Europe travel Hub, 2010).
Paris, the capital city of France, is one of the major fascinating and romantic cities in Europe and tourists who visit this magnificent capital will discover that there are numerous places to stopover. Known as the 'City of Light', the attractiveness of Paris is irresistible and their architectural and creative inheritances combine with indisputable demand and outstanding tourism makes any vacation a memorable experience (World Guides, 2010). Recommendations for Regional or Destination Planners (1) Sense of community and tourism development (Aref & Et. Al., 2009). Lauber and Knuth (2000) observed, “Sense of community has been cited as both a process and an outcome of community capacity building in tourism development”.
The conceptual model shows how the four dimensions of intelligence of community relate to tourism growth. Sense of community is directly connected to community power and community participation. Hence it can promote the industry for improvement of community capacity building. (2) Lack of flexibility The rational approach to planning, it has been argued, has made strategy far too exact and is not capable to settle in to altering environment. A dynamic advancement as provided throughout premeditated planning philosophy enables a self-motivated arrangement process; it should better be able to adapt to change. (3) Lack of strategic thinking and vision As per the traditional approach, it is found out that such plans lack leadership idea in the procedure of formulating strategies.
The addition of “strategic vision” by influential and decision-makers ensure that the preparation is not simply an outfitted plan; it should provide concepts and direction for achieving the organizations’ interest and extensive goals. (4) Poor linking of formulation and implementation The inability to link formulation of such plans to the desired outcome, it lacked clear understanding.
A clearly defined connection stuck between the preparation and execution of action steps must be there to make certain efficient delivery of both the tourism practice and the sustainability of the destination possessions and resources. (5) Developing a Tourism Policy Such a policy should provide a set of guidelines for the actions of all stakeholders; specify the wide objectives to be achieved; state the action plans; and. recognize areas of accountability and authority for policy implementation (United Nations ESCAP, 1999). (6) Promoting and investment The sector requires lot of funding with proper promotional activity in the region for achievement of the target related to the vision and mission of the policy.
Involvement of more stakeholders provides an opportunity for further growth and expansion. Case Study Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) is a self-determining non-profit program of IUCN South Africa, which aim for reasonable deal in the tourism business. This means: Linking deprived communities and inhabitants group in tourism and secure their admittance to the tourism market, Reasonable allocation for individuals occupied in the tourism business, Respect for human rights, society and the surroundings (by both hosts and visitors), Lucidity throughout the industry, FTTSA is an association that promotes and strengthens the reasonable deal in tourism philosophy in South Africa, and establishes partnerships and trade linkages countrywide as well as globally.
Besides that, it supports deprived communities and inhabitants’ groups by facilitating promotion, tourism consciousness and business skills guidance (Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA), n.d. ). Analysis of the case study Reasonable deal in tourism provide for sensible alternatives for altering the conditions of deal and completely influencing normal performances.
It is absolutely a long-standing procedure towards a worldwide move in good deed of additional fair tourism trade policy and stakeholder activities. But other additional organizations in the North and South endorse reasonable deal in tourism like “akte” in Switzerland, admiration in Austria, tourism anxiety in Great Britain, Action for reasonable deal in Africa (based in The Gambia) or reasonable deal in Tourism South Africa. The institution of local networks in reasonable deal in tourism would absolutely aid to speed up this notion and assist to market and promote CBT (Community-based Tourism) in a sustainable way. The local groups of people become used to the thought that the cash will just remain approaching in one way or the other; despite of how healthy the project performs commercially.
In some other kind of projects that are running productively, local associates had to put in a certain additional financial assistance into the project themselves. Community and NGOs in the South Africa that are involved in running CBT, are fairly and frequently anticipating that investment (e. g.
training, infrastructure, and marketing) will be completely sponsored by contributing agencies or the government. Experiences in all kinds of expansion occupation have exposed that projects fully financed or run by donors can be unsuccessful at the scenario of the donor leaving the plan. The similar kinds of scenarios have occurred with CBT. The major communities are able to donate to a development project, if they actually are concerned in it. The amount of the donation depends on the local state of affairs. It does not even have to be a hard cash donator; it could also be in non-monetary conditions, like constructing a guesthouse.
This can also be a symbol that the society is eager to spend in abundance on different occasions for the project development. Conclusion The capacity building for community based tourism can achieve the overall development through proper access to the market, bringing in commercial viability, strategic policy framework and being able to implement challenges in the local market. These developments will demonstrate the significance of CBT that has grown over two decades and is expected to continue to be effective.
References Aref, F. & Redzun, M. B., (2008). Tourism and community capacity building: A literature review. Medwell Journals. Retrieved Online on September 14, 2010 from http: //www. medwelljournals. com/abstract/? doi=pjssci. 2008.806.812 Aref, F. & Et. Al., (2009). Assessing Sense of Community Dimension of Community Capacity Building in Tourism Development in Shiraz, Iran. European Journal of Social Sciences. Retrieved Online on September 14, 2010 from http: //www. eurojournals. com/ejss_7_3_12.pdf Aref, F. & Et. Al., 2010. Dimensions of Community Capacity Building: A review of its Implications in Tourism Development. Journal of American Science. Retrieved Online on September 14, 2010 from http: //www. americanscience. org/journals/am-sci/am0601/23_1102_Dimensions_am0601.pdf Europe travel Hub, (2010).
Tourist spots in Europe. European tours. Retrieved Online on September 14, 2010 from http: //www. europetravelhub. com/european-tours/tourist-spots/ Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA), (No Date). Community-based Tourism as a Business. Modules. Retrieved Online on September 14, 2010 from http: //gc21.inwent. org/ibt/en/modules/gc21/ws-nrm-net/ibt/downloads/tourism/manual/3-CBT%20as%20a%20Business. pdf Lauber, T. B. & Knuth, B. A., (2000). Citizen Participation in Natural Resource Management: A Synthesis of HDRU Research. Euro Journals. United Nations ESCAP, (1999). Guidelines on integrated planning for sustainable tourism development. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved Online on September 14, 2010 from http: //www. unescap. org/ttdw/Publications/TPTS_pubs/pub_2019_tor. pdf World Guides, (2010).
Paris Information and Paris Tourism (Paris, France). World Guide to Paris. Retrieved Online on September 14, 2010 from http: //www. paris. world-guides. com/