Research Paper, Macro & Micro economics Step Selection of two non-Western Countries other than the United States This paper will compare and contrast three countries. The two non-Western societies discussed are China in Asia and Russia in Eastern Europe. The paper will further discuss how the political, economic and other ideologies affect these societies. Step 2: Venn diagram Step 3: Outline 1. Selection of two non-Western countries other than the United States 2. Venn Diagram of Similarities and Differences between the three countries 3. Comparison and Contrast between the US and China 4. Comparison and Contrast between the US and Russia 5.
Comparison and Contrast between the Russia and China 6. Works Cited Step 4: Final Paper Comparison and Contrast between the US and China The United States is a “Constitution-based federal republic. ” It has a strong tradition of democracy. China is known by many as the People’s Republic of China. It is a communist state. There are differences and similarities between them. Despite the name, The People’s Republic of China is not easy to classify. Most people label it a communist state. A communist state is not divided into other states within the country.
An ideal communist state is a one party system. There may be a few other parties in the country. However, the communist party is usually assured of rulership. China is gradually moving into capitalism (Mccormick 656). The United States government is called a federal republic. In a federation state, there are numerous self-governing states. These states make their own laws but follow the outline of the central state. The term republic refers to the fact that the United States consists of many states that are not under monarch rule (Underhill 347-356). China is not a republic federation.
The country does not have monarchy rule. Instead, it is led by a president. The president of China is appointed in May by the National People’s Congress. Each president must be a citizen of China of at least 45 years of age. The president handles foreign affairs, can declare a state of emergency, declare war and give special decrees. Americans also have a president. However, the American people elect their president. This is unlike China where a group, the National People’s Congress, elects the president.
American elections are held every four years on the Tuesday on or following November 2nd. The running president must a citizen of the United States by birth and be at least 35 years of age. Property is privately owned in the United States. In China, however, the entire land is owned by the government. It issues “use contracts” of 70 year durations to companies as well as citizens. These contracts are a revenue source for many municipalities. However, taxes are comparatively lower than in America. Companies in the United States are either totally private or totally government-controlled.
There are many state-owned companies in China, as well. However, these Chinese enterprises are openly traded on the stock market. There is huge private investment despite the government control. Moreover, labor laws in China are fewer that in the United States and minimum wage is also lower. The Chinese social welfare system is still young. Different to the United States, the China’s economy has tariff protection. Thus, the importation of goods such as cars is very expensive. The currencies exchange rates in China are tightly controlled and set by the central bank. Comparison and Contrast between the US and Russia Elections offer a platform where society can make political choices by voting for or against certain leaders.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia conducts a free election related to the United States and other democracies. The difference between the American and Russian presidential elections is that the US has an Electoral College. The Russian president is a direct elect of the citizens while the American president follows a method known as the Electoral College (Gorenburg 3-7). The United States has conducted democratic elections since its foundation.
However, Russia had its first democratic presidential elections in 1996. Prior to this occasion, only a privileged minority enjoyed the right to elect their president. Currently, any citizen with at least 18 years of age who has never been convicted or declared incompetently is free to vote. Another difference between the American and Russian political systems is the number of parties within it. Russia has a vast array of parties unlike the United States who only has a few.
These many parties in Russia do not have a significant impact because, during elections, they have to form alliances in order to become significant. The similarity between the two political systems is that, during elections, there are two major parties in the end competing for president. The political accord in Russia is represented by the Kremlin and its party power called United Russia. In comparing the US and Russian economic system, the national product is the best measure. While the US uses GNP or GDP, Russia uses the concept of Net Material Product (NMP).
NMP was not calculated on a value-addition order. Therefore, it exhibited double counting. This accounts for why Russian statistics is usually higher than those of the US (Huckfeldt 942). In the United States, prices of products are dependent upon the forces of demand and supply. In Russia, however, prices are determined by government decree. This decree is based on accounting formulae rather than supply and demand. The United States uses market currency exchange rates. However, since Russia uses arbitrary exchange rates, currency exchange is almost impossible. Comparison and Contrast between Russia and China The Russian and Chinese political systems are very similar.
Both countries are more capitalists than communists. The only difference is that China held to its past political symbols while Russia discarded them. These symbols held onto by the Chinese include the hammer-and-sickles, Red Stars and calls to obey the Communist Party (Mccormick 656). In China, politics is much more pluralistic than in Russia. While China focuses on keeping power in one party, Russia focuses on giving power to one person. However, both countries are similar because the Chinese are known to hand power to pre-determined party leaders.
In Russia, Vladimir Putin is known for letting power go when he is guaranteed to get it back. Both countries have taken great effort to ensure that they appear democratic. For example, recently in Beijing’s Great Hall of the People, approximately three thousand members of parliament elected Xi Jinping as president. Similarly, Russians voted unanimously and restored Vladimir Putin back to power. Both Russia and China criticize Western-style democracy as an inefficient form of government. However, they go to great lengths to copy the system of government that they disapprove (Gorenburg 3-7).
Moreover, parliaments in these two countries are like extensions of the executive government arm as well as media outlets. China has been a more market-oriented economic system than the closed system it used to be. This made it the world’s largest exporter in 2010. Since the crumble of the Soviet Union, as a country, Russia has transformed itself from being a centrally-planned and isolated economy to a market-based global economy (Speranskaya 318-320). The 1990s economic reforms led to the privatization of many industries except the energy and defense-related dockets.
These changes made Russia the largest oil producer in 2011. Similarly, China liberalized prices, conducted fiscal decentralization and created an expanded banking system and stock markets. The restructure of both the Russian and Chinese economies has resulted in more than ten times growth, in both economies. For example, the Chinese economy grew to such an extent that it surpassed Japan in 2001 (Das 15). Works Cited Das, Dilip K. "The Chinese Economy. " Chinese Economy 45.4 (2012): 7-38. Gorenburg, Dmitry. "The Politics of Russian History. " russian politics and law 48.4 (2010): 3-7. Huckfeldt, R.
"Interdependence, Density Dependence, and Networks in Politics. " American Politics Research 37.5 (2009): 921-950. Mccormick, Barrett. "Policing Chinese Politics: A History. " Perspectives on Politics 5.03 (2007): 656. Speranskaya, T. S. "Summary Results of the 34th Session of the French-Russian Seminar on the Monetary And Financial Problems of the Russian Economy Today. " Studies on Russian Economic Development 19.3 (2008): 318-320. Underhill, Geoffrey R. d. "Political Economy, the ‘US School’, and the Manifest Destiny of Everyone Else. " New Political Economy 14.3 (2009): 347-356.