Essays on Type of Leadership Okuda Uses Assignment

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "Type of Leadership Okuda Uses" is a perfect example of a management assignment. According to Tittemore (2003), it is considered to be a classical approach where the leader maintains much power and the authority to make core organization decisions. The staff is not consulted on any occasion, and they are not allowed to give any contribution. They are expected to respect orders as they come without demanding any explanation. With this leadership type, the workers are usually highly resistant and therefore, make it an ineffective strategy in many environmental situations. On the other hand, autocratic leadership defines a set of punishments and rewards for workers.

The leaders rely on punishments and threats in the workplace to control and influence the staff. They limit their input because they do not trust the staff members. Despite the leader centered nature of autocratic leadership, it is most effective when the organization has new and untrained staff who do not comprehend the procedures of work and which tasks to do. In this case, supervision can be done by giving orders and instructions to such category of workers.

It is also appropriate where workers fail to respond to other leadership styles, and thus the manger feels insubordinate. In addition, when time is less for decisions to be made, autocracy may be applied. However, it is not prudent to use autocratic leadership in a situation where the staff demands that their opinions should be heard and thus become rebellious. Low staff morale and high levels of absenteeism should never be managed through threats or punishment. (Mumford et. al, 2000) Bureaucratic leadership In this type of leadership, everything is done in accordance with the rules, procedures and policies set by the organization.

The role of the leader is to enforce the rules and pass to a higher level those that deem tough to handle. (Tittemore, 2003) The method is appropriate where the staff comprehends well the standards and procedures of an organization and thus follows them closely. When workers perform repetitive tasks, bureaucracy is effective. In situations where safety and security training is conducted, bureaucratic leadership is used since the workers have to follow instructions to the letter. It is also advantageous for workers who perform tasks that involve handling money.

(Jacobs & Jaques, 1990) It is, however, advisable to stop applying the method of leadership, where habits are formed and are difficult to rid them especially where they are no longer required. Staff may lose interest in their work and do what is only instructed. This may kill creativity and achievement of job satisfaction. Democratic Leadership It is also known as participative leadership because it allows staff members to take part in organizational decision making. The leader encourages staff to participate and also keeps them informed about everything that may affect them within their working environment.

Sharing is the key aspect in regards to decisions made as well as solving problems that arise as people execute their duties. The method is appropriate when applied with highly experienced workers. (Zaccaro et. al, 2001)


Argyris, C. 1976, Increasing Leadership Effectiveness, Wiley, New York,

Bass, B. M. 1990, Bass & Stogdill's handbook of leadership: Theory, Research, and

Managerial Applications (3rd Ed.). New York, NY, US: Free Press.

Frey, M., Kern, R., Snow, J., & Curlette, W. 2009, Lifestyle and Transformational

Leadership Style. Journal of Individual Psychology, 65(3), 212-240.

Hemphill, J. K. 1949, Situational Factors in Leadership. Columbus: Ohio State

University Bureau of Educational Research.

Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. & Johnson, D. 2008, Management of Organizational

Behavior: Leading Human Resources (9th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Pearson Education.

Jacobs, T. O. & Jaques, E. 1990, Military executive leadership. Measures of

Leadership, 281-295.

Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Harding, F. D., Jacobs, T. O., & Fleishman,

E. A. 2000, Leadership skills for a changing world solving complex social

Problems. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(1), 11-35.

Spillane, J. & Richard, D. J. 2004, "Towards a theory of leadership practice". Journal

Of Curriculum Studies, 36 (1): 3–34

Tittemore, J. A. 2003, Leadership at all Levels. Canada: Boskwa Publishing.

Zaccaro, S. J., Rittman, A. L., & Marks, M. A. 2001, Team leadership. Leadership

Quarterly, 12(4), 451-483.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us