Q1.Key elements in a performance management process PlanningPerformance planning is the first component of a performance management process. It is a very crucial part of the whole process as the employee and the appraiser get to jointly define the purpose of the process and why it is important for the both of them. At this stage it is important to define what the whole process is all about (Brewerton and Millward, 2001). The appraiser views performance standards to form the frame of reference which are used to judge the performance of an employee.
To the employee it becomes important for them to know from the appraiser what is expected of them. According to (Brewerton and Millward (2001) at this stage the two participating parties; the supervisor and the employee, can accomplish several important objectives that are crucial that this point. They are; defining goals, discussing expectations from key performance areas which can be performed by the employee within the stipulated performance evaluation time. This process can only be considered complete upon mutual agreement of the supervisor and the employee.
The supervisor should clearly define roles, discuss specific job requirements and answer appraises questions. Evaluating performancePerformance appraisal or evaluation is conducted twice per year in many organizations; One in mid year and another one at the end of the year. The appraise gives his filled up personal ratings in the self appraisal form but ultimately the final ratings are provided by the appraiser. Performance evaluation is intended to give performance information to be used for administrative and development purpose of the concerned individual within the organization. How the process is conducted and the outcome may have an effect on employee’s attitudes towards the performance management process and thus influence final achievement of the process.
It is common to see ratings for administrative purposes being biased to motivate employees but may be harsh for development purposes of which the employee doesn’t get a hint about but are used to develop him/her (Breakwell and Millward, 1995). Breakwell and Millward (1995) argue that the success of the evaluation process is determined by the level of honesty and active participation by both the appraiser and the employee to identify points of weaknesses in the performance and how they can be turned into strengths.
Since the evaluation process happens only twice a year, there is a tendency to concentrate mostly on the individual when evaluating performance and disregard other contributing factors like working environment. It is therefore vital that the appraiser and the employee explore the whole process together so that the appraiser may identify possible areas of shortcomings which may affect the productivity of the employee and therefore necessitating organizational change. Providing feedback for employee performanceThis is a very important element of performance management process for both the both the concerned employee and the relevant decision makers.
At this point the employee is made aware by the appraiser of the areas of improvement as per his/her performance and also whether his /her performance is equal or less to the expected level of performance as agree upon at the first stage of performance management. It has to be a very open and transparent process in order to show commitment by the two parties that they intend the greater good of the organization.
This way the training and development needs of the employee will be identified and worked upon. It is the duty of the appraiser to ensure that the employee meets all the expected outcomes for the organization. This is achieved through counseling, guidance and coaching of the employee to improve his/her overall productivity. It is important that the feedback process be given in a clear and concise manner. It should not be given in any threatening tone but rather supportive way in which the employee and the appraiser discuss career development opportunities and decisions which the employee ought to take in order to improve performance and develop his/her career (Pettijohn, Pettijohn and d’Amico, 2001).