The paper "The Role of Individual and Training Design Factors" Is a great example of a Management Assignment. Transfer of training refers to the level of knowledge retention and application of the skills acquired from training to workplace setting. It occurs when the effects of earlier learning authorize how a later activity is performed (Bhatti & Kaur 2010). Despite the use of significant literature to counter the increased transfer problem, the actual transfer of official employee training is still inadequate. This inadequacy of training transfer is portrayed in Carlos DaSilva's case study. Discussion It is clear that Carlos's training program failed to transfer.
He failed to train for the right reasons. It is important to identify the reasons for particular training. Carlos organized the training because it was the only readily available means of training. He did not put into consideration the content, applicability, and the developmental requirements of the poor communication system in the school. He failed to establish a link between the organizational needs and the objectives of the training. According to Bhatti & Kaur (2010), the best reason for training is to solve an identified problem, and the result should be a change of behavior to improve productivity and relationships in the workplace.
The use of training in solving incorrect problems results in failure. Another reason Carlos training failed is that he viewed the training as an event and not as a process. One of the major reasons why training fails to transfer is because trainers view it as a one-time occasion other than a process. Transferring knowledge and skills obtained into the work performance is not an easy task as Carlos imagined.
According to Kauffeld & Lehmann-Willenbrock (2010), all studies concerning human behavior reveal that humans neither easily accept changes, nor do they change themselves easily. Participants may seem to love the training program and get motivated to implement the knowledge learned and after a while, they may succeed. Nevertheless, just little of the knowledge acquired during training sticks and people seem to go back to go their old behavior (Tessema et al 2012). Carlos took a narrow view of the training; therefore, his intentions were doomed.
Lack of follow-up is another reason the training failed to transfer. There are two major steps of each learning experience (Leberman & McDonald 2006). The first involves mastering the latest skills and the second part involves implementing the skills in the workplace. It is believed that the main reason training fails to transfer is not the training itself but the happenings that follow. The most common problem in employee training is the lack of solemn follow-up after the training. The issues that resulted in this problem in Carlos's case included the lack of understanding from the management, there was neither encouragement of the participants after the training nor was there evaluation of the training.
These four issues led to a drastic failure of the training transfer. Business owners and managers should always set up and control the training perception in the company (Bhatti & Kaur 2010). Understanding what the training entails in the company is vital in creating a successful atmosphere for training. In this case, the participants had wrong perceptions concerning the training implementation because they thought communication is always downwards.
Also, Carlos should have involved the senior staff in his training program. Various barriers hindered the training transfer in Carlos's case. Both the trainer and the senior staff had a role to play in overcoming the transfer barriers. The participants’ characteristics were the main barrier to Carlos's training program. The participants did not perceive the training as useful. The participants did not believe in the ability to change. The senior executives should have participated in this training because they would have been of more influence on the participants due to their position.
Also, the training design was a problem. Carlos should have implemented a psychological training intervention. Another important strategy would have been error management. In this strategy, the participants anticipate the circumstances that are likely to go wrong during the training transfer (Kauffeld & Lehmann-Willenbrock 2010), These situations would then be explored with participants highlighting the best practice. The negative impacts of wrongful handling of the situation are also identified. Good training should explore the work environment of the participants. The work environment is another barrier to effective training transfer.
After training, the participants go back to their actual working environments and the most important thing is to assess whether the participants will get enough opportunity to implement the skills learned (Leberman & McDonald 2006). To avoid succumbing to the old routines, work environments should support the implementation of the new skills into the workplace. Such support lacked in the Carlos case. Senior staff members and colleagues should be compassionate to the new behavior (Tessema et al 2012). Training aids, job cues, internal encouragement, and follow-up meetings are a major support an organization can offer its workers after a training program.
Only very few organizations are concerned about the long-term effects of training programs that need major interventions for it to be successful. There are some things Carlos would have done before and after training for effective training transfer. He should have focused on the desired results and focus on improving the communication systems in the school board together with other staff. If he had identified the problem together with other executives, there would have been the exchange of ideas and the transfer would have been successful.
He would have introduced a model of the desired performance which is not just confined in the training environment. While Carlos thought he was the only person who could have provided effective communication systems, other staff would have better ideas on how the same could be done. He would have involved program co-participants, mentors, and senior staff members. It would have shown a network of support to the learners. For this training to transfer successfully there was a need for a change of mindset.
In many organizations, the greatest problem is to change the mindsets of the subordinate and the senior staff (Bhatti & Kaur 2010). In this case, the participants perceived that their opinions were not valid anywhere in the institution since the communication was always downwards. Such mindsets should have been the first issue Carlos should have targeted to change before he began the training program. Follow-up integration would have assisted in the training transfer success. The development program should have been accompanied by assessment and a period of reinforcement such as; accountability, coaching, ongoing learning, and further follow-up evaluations (Kauffeld & Lehmann-Willenbrock 2010).
The organization's culture, regulations, and schemes may frustrate the participant’ s attempts to transfer the new skills. Carlos would have focused on culture alignment for the effective transfer of the communication training program. He would have begun by identifying cultural barriers that were likely to hinder successful transfer and aimed at eliminating them. The training transfer climate has various roles. Organizational climate for the training transfer includes; work environment factors that authorize the application of knowledge obtained from a training program (Leberman & McDonald 2006).
Significant relations exist between the training transfer climate and the level of skills transferred effectively to the workplace. According to Kauffeld & Lehmann-Willenbrock (2010), there has not been identified a clear and constant training transfer climate construct since many organizations have different cultures. The factors that comprise the transfer climate are of two kinds; the cues and the consequences. It refers to cues and consequences that occur in large part occurrence, perceptions, and influences that develop away from the actual training event. Transfer climate involves situational and consequential cues.
According to Tessema et al (2012), an Australian case study showed that transfer climate factors distinctly influenced various types of motivation. The intrinsic advantage is a major positive determiner of various autonomous kinds of motivation, and a tough negative determiner of motivation (Kauffeld & Lehmann-Willenbrock 2010). Evaluation of meditational models demonstrated that the relation between motivation type and transfer climate type was influenced by intrinsic beliefs. Employers should concentrate on strategies that increase autonomous inspiration to attend more voluntary training and development activities among the workers.
The strategies implemented should involve the promotion of a positive transfer climate by the use of helpful reinforcement of the intrinsic gains. Relapse prevention (RP) is accompanied by self-control and is aimed at teaching individuals how to expect and deal with relapse of the former behavior (Bhatti & Kaur 2010). Successful training depends on the choice of the RP strategy which in turn depends on the work climate. In Carlos's case, the transfer environment did not favor the transfer of knowledge by the board members. The participants had their own perceptions concerning the culture of the communication system on the board.
Such perception needed to be erased by establishing a transfer environment that inspired the participants to implement the knowledge they acquired in the training. Carlos would have established a positive transfer environment by use of beneficial reinforcement for intrinsic gains. There is a lot that Carlos can do about the transfer problem ate the school board. Firstly, he needs to identify the right reasons for the training and establish a link between the organizational needs and the objectives of the training.
He should stop viewing the training as an event. Training is a process that requires follow-up and assessment (Kauffeld & Lehmann-Willenbrock 2010). He should take a wide view of the training and involve the senior staff members. Carlos should focus on implementing a more fruitful strategy such as; error management strategy and psychological training intervention so as to deal with any possibilities that would result to transfer failure. He should identify all barriers of transfer experienced in the school board and look for measures to counter the barriers. The participants claimed that communication on the board was always downwards.
This indicates that the participants had a perception that their views are not valid in the organization. Carlos should focus on changing the mindset of the employees so that the skills acquired may be successfully transferred. If at all the communication in the board is always downwards, there is the need to change the culture of the whole organization by involving the senior staff in a communication training program.
Bhatti, M, A, & Kaur, S, 2010,The Role Of Individual And Training Design Factors On Training Transfer, Journal of European Industrial Training, 34(7), 656-672.
Kauffeld, S, & Lehmann-Willenbrock, N, 2010, Sales training: effects of spaced practice on training transfer, Journal of European Industrial Training, 34(1), 23-37.
Leberman, S, & McDonald, L 2006, The transfer of learning participants' perspectives of adult education and training, Aldershot, England, Gower.
Tessema, M, T, Winrow, B, P, & Teclezio, M, M, 2012, The transfer of training at macro level in least developed countries: a case study of the ‘brain-drain’ in Eritrea, International Journal of Training and Development, 16(4), 247-262.