Hypothetical Case Study Hypothetical Case Study Organizational theories Organizational behavior is a multi disciplinary area of research which uses theories and concepts from different academic areas of research, traditional management and business administration. It focuses on three levels of analysis; increasing performance in an organization is referred to as organizational effectiveness. The assumption determines the organization effectiveness, criteria used in evaluating the effectiveness are; measure organizational output, evaluating an employee’s satisfaction, development of resources, ability to adapt to the current environment and organizational survival in the long run (Hankinson, 2010). Effective organizations provide quality products and services, meeting the customers need and expectations.
Quality idea also leads to the effective focus on quality, the concepts that assume other dimensions of effective organization are somehow unique. However, quality is the only way to measure the effectiveness of an organization. Effectiveness leads to the attainment of an organization goal. Another approach that fuels towards effectiveness the environment and processes the raw materials is obtained using other inputs. Effectiveness of a system can be measured through system adaptation and survival to the change in the environment and system efficiency (James, 2010). Mangers have a role in an organizational behavior; they influence the functioning of the organization, mainly the structure of the organization.
Organizational behavior can be used evaluate the effect of mangers action has on the employees and the flow of work in the organization. It helps in managerial decisions and hoe effective is a manager. Organizational culture Organizational culture reflects the personality of the organization. Every organization has a different culture which shapes its actions and objectives.
Organization prefers people who comply with organizations culture. Employees need to be more sensitive about their cultural needs; they may end up being out casted or even fired from their work place. Orientation method conveys vital information about new employees. They fail to offer orientation programs to the new employees; they end up informally oriented by the coworkers. What they learn may not be in line with the and goals objectives of the organization. Culture is relatively stable in the short run. Thus, it hard to change and impossible to change in a short time, change is experienced after a while. The resistances to cultural fail change the response of the environment demands.
Socialization is the process which people learn how to behave in an organization. Organizational culture and socialization are often incompatible with the idea of valuing diversity; they create homogeneity and limit heterogeneity. Obviously, ethnic groups and different countries have cultural differences. Research has developed several modes to identify these systematic ways (George, 2007). Individual differences and work behaviors lead to stereo types, abilities knowledge, skills and abilities reflect on the personal capacity and the ability to perform.
Personal characteristics influence capabilities. Individual performances comprise of the ability, opportunity and motivation which are the key determiners of performance. Organizational abilities Capacity is the ability to perform; willingness is the same as motivation. The importance of motivation and ability shortcomings in reality, managers do not give employees sufficient support and authority to perform successfully. Giving employees a chance to perform their task and roles, relationship between job performance and specification is unclear, although research suggests that the rewards an employee receives from performing well are critical to job specification.
Positive feedback, performance, and attitude can spiral downward until is truly unproductive and unhappy. In terms of performance model, personal characteristics primarily impact motivation. Perception, emotions and attributes Attributes, emotions and perception continue the discussion of individual traits. Theories assume that all employees have similar emotional and perceptual processes. Perception is the process in which information processed and perceived and processed in the brain. Many perceptual tendencies which systematically prevent employee perception, according to attribute theory the key role of managers and organization is whether an employee’s behaviors are caused by the employee and the environment.
It makes sense reward employees reward employees for conscious and behaviors that are desirable. It is equally beneficial, organization worries about an employee’s attributions. Employee become resentful as they believe the problem was in the environment. Emotional intelligence is the ability to cognitive intelligence unfortunately, the meaning is constantly changing. Motivation is one of the most efficient ways to enhance staff performance. Motivation refers to the willingness of a person to put effort in a particular direction, in a given magnitude and in a specified duration.
People differ in effort levels they are willing to put to work. People get motivated; however, their level of motivation differs individually. Before thinking of motivating the staff, understanding, what they need is a key factor. There exist many universal theories that explain human needs concepts to refer to as manager. Motivation They include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; McClelland’s learned needs theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory among many others. They are earlier content theories that explain peoples motivation. There are process theories, which explain motivation dynamics.
Expectancy theory, goal-setting theory, equity theory and exchange theory are the primary ones. These are relatively simpler compared to the content theories. After properly understanding how to motivate the working force in the company, there should be plans to implement in order to be successful. Things to do as a manager includes; introducing insurance cover, salary increments through allowances and others that see fit. Job design Job designs should be considered and made intrinsically motivating. The above covered motivating theories, have impacts on the ways jobs structure are, regard to improving intrinsic rewards.
Job designs today consider Quality of Work Life. It includes; health, safety and psychological factors. The most noteworthy is the psychological well being of an employee when working. People exist in three psychological level at work; job satisfaction, commitment to the organization and involvement in their job (Borowski, 2010). These attitudinal variables influence the employees’ job performance which in turn influences the organization performance. Paying attention to these issues may pay off significantly in organizational performance. To design better jobs, there are three key issues to be taken into account during work flow design; job performance outcome, job analysis and job design.
These will help make sure employees work well balanced jobs in a good state of minds. One way to design better jobs is through by combining jobs into teams. When employees get rewards in the organization for the work well done, they get motivated. Job satisfaction is one way to reward employees in an organization. Evaluating an employee’s performance determines how to reward them. Below is a psychological theory that explains how feedback can impact an employee’s performance.
It is known as the reinforcement theory. It encompasses four different feedback types that involve behavior change. Only two involves reinforcement despite the name. They include positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. The principles behind these four are relatively unsophisticated (Gabriel, 2006). Positive reinforcement involves giving something valuable. Negative reinforcement involves withdrawing dislikes. The four types of feedback impacts they way an employee gets motivated. The reinforcement determines a person’s ability to improve work efficiency. Performance appraisal should be conducted overtime. With these in place, it is easy to monitor progress hence ensuring food performance.
This will improve the company’s performance in return. Managing misbehavior Misbehavior management should be critically managed in an organization to attain required performance. It is necessary to identify sources of misbehavior before coming up with how to deal with them. The common types of misbehavior at the work place include; fraud, sexual harassment, cyber slacking, substance abuse among many other things. The best approach to misbehavior management is through rights and policies. Everyone should be familiar with the organizations governing policies. Conclusion Everyone should understand their rights to prevent molestation and sexual abuse.
The replications concerning misbehavior acts should be clearly stated so that one is aware of what awaits. The replications should not be lenient so as to stop people from thinking of even attempting to misbehave. With a well done policy in place, the organization staff will perform as required, hence improving the performance of the company. References Borowski, A. (2010). Management. New York: GRIN Verlag, Hitt, A. M., Ireland, D. R., Hokinson, E. R. (2010). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization, Concepts. Texas: Cengage Learning, George.
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