The paper "Balancing Motivation at Work" Is a wonderful example of a Management Case Study. Motivation is a subject that is common in the study of psychology. Various definitions of this key term and psychological concept have been suggested by different scholars. According to Huitt, W (2001) most of the academic work ever written on motivation in psychology by scholars and specialists in educational psychology agrees that motivation is an internal state or condition that serves to activate or energize behavior and give it directly towards the attainment of a particular goal.
Franken (1994) adds a very important aspect or rather component in this definition by stating that motivation is the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior. There exist so far two types of motivation. These are extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is the motivation that is in most case influenced by external factors like rewards among others. Intrinsic motivation, however, is that type of motivation that comes from within the individual and is mostly comes from one's interest in the task being performed or enjoyment of the task itself.
Motivation is a very vital aspect in human behavior as no task or behavior, no matter how simple it may be, can be learned if there is no motivation, either intrinsic or extrinsic. Various motivational theories have been suggested by different scholars. The expectancy theory, for example, was suggested by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management. The theory in itself focuses more on the mental processes that are associated with one's ability to make choices, the processes a person will go through in the making of choices, or in choosing in order to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
According to Montana, Patrick J; Charnov, Bruce H, Management (2008) "This theory emphasizes the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients. " It is one theory that helps in the explanation of the behavior of individuals in an organization which in turn can help to solve some of the problems an organization is facing in the current fluctuating organizational climate. Victor H.
Vroom puts more of his focus and emphasis on the outcomes of behavior and not on the needs’ relationship (in most cases internal) as suggested by people like Maslow in his psychological theories. In his hypothesis in this theory, Vroom says that an individual’ s motivational level will depend on the link between his effort, the performance, and the motivation he/she has in the task being performed. He introduces us to three distinct variables to give an account for all this. They are; Valance (V), Expectancy (E), and Instrumentality (I). Victor suggests that the three variables can be combined in a single formula to calculate the motivation of an employee.
Montana, Patrick J; Charnov, Bruce H, Management – 4th edition; (2008) – Barron's Educational Series, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7641-3931-4