Essays on Pressure and Changes in Various Organizations Literature review

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The paper “ Pressure and Changes in Various Organizations” is a fascinating example of the literature review on management. Managers are faced with inconsistency when it comes to issues to change the culture of their organizations. It is vital for managers to change their organizations or they risk perish of their organization. On the other hand, managers are faced with a dilemma towards embracing change in that change may bring around some disruptive impact that may risk business from perishing. Organizational change efforts are geared towards the improvement of organizational performance and people in the organization.

Organizational change is the wide changes that take place in an organization. They include change of mission, mergers, rightsizing, new technologies, restructuring operations, re-engineering, and introduction of new programs like Total Quality Management among others. Organizational change can as well be referred to as organizational transformation. Organizational change is a strategy that aims at achieving some overall goals. The pressure to changes usually comes from internal organizational pressures and external organizational pressures. There are several types of pressures that managers face towards enforcing a change in their organizations.

Pressure for change may come from several directions like the discovery of deviations, new desires and vision of the future, the environment, and the fundamental nature of organizations themselves. External pressures include hyper-competition, fashion, market decline, reputation and credibility, and geopolitical. Internal pressures for change in an organization include identity, power and politics, growth, integration and collaboration, and a new broom. Navigator is usually used as an image for managing pressure changes. Strategic change is in response to external and internal pressures. There is needed to take into account multiple pressures that managers face or encounter within an organization.

Another image that assists in managing change is a coach. Kotter, (1996, p. 45) argues that it is significant to shape and develop an organization’ s capabilities in such a way that it will be capable of enhancing the outcomes of the organization.



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Dunphy, D, Griffiths, A & Benn, S 2003, Organizational change for corporate sustainability, Routledge, New York.

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Kotter, J 1996, Leading Change, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

Leana, C and Barry, B 2000, ‘Stability and change as simultaneous experiences in organizational life’, Academy of Management Review, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 753-59.

McKinley, W, Zhao, J and Rusat, K 2000, ‘A socio-cognitive interpretation of organizational downsizing’, Academy of Management Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 227-243.

Palmer, I, Dunford, R & Akin, G 2008, Managing organizational change: a multiple perspectives approach, 2nd edn, McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York.

Pettigrew, A, Woodman, R & Cameraon, K 2001, ‘Studying organizational change and development: Challenges for future research’, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 697-713.

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