Essays on Factors Contributing to Child Labor Coursework

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The paper 'Factors Contributing to Child Labor" is a perfect example of business coursework.   Child labour is defined as all the economic activity for children under twelve years, any work of sufficient hours per week to undermine the health and education of those aged between twelve and fourteen years, and all hazardous work which could threaten the health of children under Eighteen. The International labour organization (ILO) defines it as some type of work done by the children under the age of eighteen. It further states that child labour occurs when a child under fifteen works full time interfering with child education or it is dangerous to their health.

Nearly all child labour occurs in the third countries, mostly in Agriculture but also in domestic service, backstreet workshops and in factory production. Though there existed a fall of over 10% in the figure since the last tally in 2000, over 24% of children within sub-Saharan Africa remain in the phase of poverty in which child labour is part. Child labour takes two forms in the third world countries, that is, bonded and non-bonded child labour.

Bonded child labour is whereby a child below the age of eighteen works for debt payment taken by the child or the family member without or with the child's approval, under situations that restrain his/her freedom as well as development and makes him/her susceptible to physical together with other forms of mistreatment and divest him of his fundamental rights. It is also known as debt bondage (McKechnie & Lavalette 1999). Non-bonded child labour is whereby the child is working to be paid for the labour but not to pay a debt. The practices on child labour in the third countries Children have been exploited by their employers in third world countries since the 1800s.

ILO involves three categories of child labour: hazardous work, non-hazardous work, and unreserved the worst forms of child labour. They estimate that from the year 2000 about 180 million children below the age of fifteen years engage in non-hazardous work. This work allows a maximum of fourteen hours weekly for children ageing between 5 and 12 years. It also allows forty-three hours weekly for those above twelve years. Hazardous work is the works that outdo these figures and results in bad effects on the health of the child and his/ her moral development.

It is estimated that about 111 million children fall under this category, almost 60% of children who are economically active which is estimated to include 211 million children between five to fourteen years. Nevertheless, there exist more girls compared to boys in these categories. Lastly, in the unconditional worst form, forced and bonded labour is included. There is also prostitution, armed conflict involvements, pornography and illicit activities.

A conventional tallying by the ILO approximates that more than eight million of kids below eighteen years of age are entails in these types of activities. Today, the number of child workers in sub-Saharan Africa has decreased to 2.5 million yet many Brazilians privately ridicule efforts to end child labour. They say that even the United States tried to fight this problem in rural areas but did not achieve much as some American children are used to twelve-hour workdays. Child labour is so embedded in Brazil that parents rarely condemn the government for not providing better jobs or adequate schooling.

Instead, they provide support to parents. These children ranged from 10 to 15 years. De Jesus argues that he did not feel oppressed by the owner of the sisal farm who employed his children. He says that if the children did not work they could have gone hungry (Mofford 2003).

Bibliography

Abbot, G., 1938, Legal Status in the Family, Apprenticeship and Child Labour, volume 1, Greenwood, New York.

Greene, L., 1992, Child labour: then and now: Impact Book F. Watts.

Grootaert, C. & Kanbur S. M., 1995, Child labour: a review, World Bank. California.

Hindman, H. D., 2002, Child labour: an American history, M.E. Sharpe, New Jersey.

Hine, L.W. & Freedman R., 1998, Kids at Work: Lewis Hine and the Crusade against Child Labour, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Washington DC.

Jillian, A., 1997, Child labour: the legal aspects, Volume 1,SPARC, Michigan.

Kathlyn, G., 1998, Child labour: a global crisis Single Titles Series, Millbrook, New York.

McKechnie, J. & Lavalette M., 1999, Child labour: a world history companion, Volume 5. ABC-CLIO Publishers, Harvard University Press.

Mofford, J. H., 2003, Child Labour in America, Bt Bound, California.

National consumers’ League, 1905, Child Labour legislature: Schedules of Existing statutes and the standards, National Consumers' League, Michigan.

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