Essays on Can Coal Mining Corporations Operate Sustainably - UK Coal Plc, BHP Billiton Plc and Xstrata Research Paper

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The paper "Can Coal Mining Corporations Operate Sustainably - UK Coal Plc, BHP Billiton Plc and Xstrata" is a perfect example of a management research paper.   How can companies make a profit by exploiting nature and human capital as well as maintain long-term sustainability? In recent years, few notions have so fully captured the corporate imagination as that of corporate social responsibility (CSR), defined broadly as a company’ s “ status and activities with respect to its perceived societal or, at least, stakeholder obligations. ” While CSR is by no means a new idea, more companies than ever before are backing CSR initiatives such as corporate philanthropy, cause-related marketing, minority support programs, and socially responsible employment and manufacturing practices— and they are doing so with real financial and marketing muscle.

The web sites of more than 80% of the Fortune 500 companies address CSR issues, reflecting the pervasive belief among business leaders that in today’ s marketplace CSR is not only an ethical/ideological imperative but also an economic one. In other words, companies today are increasingly aware of both the normative and business case for engaging in CSR; not only is “ doing good” “ the right thing to do, ” but it also leads to “ doing better” through its positive effects on key stakeholder groups.

Thus sustainability in the 21st century for businesses across the globe is enhancing corporate social responsibility on a long-term basis i. e. stakeholder perspective. The question that arises after the initial discussion is how can coal mining corporations enhance corporate social responsibility or sustainable development as their business model revolves around eradicating natural resources from the surface of the earth? 2.0 Research Question Can Coal mining corporations operate sustainably?

Case Research on UK Coal Plc, BHP Billiton Plc and Xstrata In this research note, we would be analyzing the corporate social responsibility index and strategies sketched by coal mining companies to enhance sustainability on a long-term basis.


• Annual Reports: UK Coal Plc 2008, 2007

• Annual Reports: BHP Billiton 2008, 2007

• Annual Report: Xstrata 2008, 2007

• Annual Sustainability Report: UK Coal Plc 2008

• Annual Sustainability Report: BHP Billiton 2008

• Annual Sustainability Report: Xstrata 2008


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• Minette E. Drumwright and Patrick E. Murphy, “Corporate Societal Marketing,” in Paul N. Bloom and Gregory T. Gundlach, eds., Handbook of Marketing and Society (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001).

• Smith, op. cit., pp. 1-25; Keith B. Murray and Christine M. Vogel, “Using a Hierarchy of Effects Approach to Gauge the Effectiveness of CSR to Generate Goodwill Towards the Firm: Financial versus Non-financial Impacts,” Journal of Business Research, 38 (1997): 141-159. See, also, The World Economic Forum (2002).

• C.B. Bhattacharya, Sankar Sen “Doing Better at Doing Good”. CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL. 47, NO. 1 FALL 2004

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• Emshoff, J. R. and R. E. Freeman: 1978, ‘Stakeholder Management’, Working Paper from the Wharton Applied Research Centre (July). Quoted by Sturdivant (1979).

• Porter, M. E. and M. R. Kramer: 2002, ‘The Competitive Advantage of Corporate Philanthropy’, Harvard Business Review 80(12), 56–69.

• The World Economic Forum (2002).

• Votaw, D.: 1972, ‘Genius Became Rare: A Comment on the Doctrine of Social Responsibility Pt 1’, California Management Review 15(2), 25–31.

• Ehrlich P., Ehrlich A.H and Holdren J.P (1977) Ecoscience population environment San Francisco W.H Freeman.

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