Introduction: The role of linguistic is to study the similarities, differences, kinds and varieties, spoken and written forms of the languages, acquisition, change and standards of languages, translation has gone further as in the form of unifying factor among the nations of the world. Translation works as a communicative element of lingual, cultural diversity and academic knowledge for the benefit of its users through an additional communicative mechanism. Translation plays the role of discovery for new knowledge and skills through the interaction of selected text and the target language.
The process of translation discovers things from language to language, from age to age, from country to country, and from world to world through sharing of knowledge and information. In view thereof, translation plays a major role in the evolution and spread of different religions, literatures for dissemination among the masses and understanding. There are three categories of translation as theoretical translation studies, descriptive translation studies and applied translation studies with their respective areas of utilization and operation. The first type of translation as given above deals with the explanation of phenomena to constitute basic and fundamental principles for the process of translation. The second category works with comparative studies of the selected and the target language; it focuses on textual phenomena of the languages and their translatability, be they linguistic, cultural and literary and the last category dilates upon the issues like the translator training, translation criticism and translation aids for their application in the process of translation (Ababneh, Talib Ibrahim, 1987(1).
The study has been completed through the application of second category as descriptive techniques have been applied in the literary translation from Arabic as the original language into English as the target language (Kader& Yousef, 1994(2).
The study has described and compared the translation aspects that can be semantically problematic concerning the macrostructures with global meanings of the texts understudy and microstructures as the expressive means of the texts, their occurrence, and effects in literary translation and impacts on both the languages. This study is a bilingual comparative study which involves Arabic as the text language and English as the target language for comparative analysis of the translating models between the two languages.
It is descriptive in style on literary texts whose dynamics are polystem with continual interplay between theoretical models and selected case studies. Translation is an object of research into the mechanism of one language in relation to another. There are five major rationales behind the study needs special attention for their explanation; The translation from Arabic to English needs to determine the range and possibilities of those trends with systematic approach for their clarification and understanding; owing to effective human communication among the audiences of Arabic and English speaking world and therefore, translation study may need to focus on translation modeling based on descriptive comparative study of the two languages in literary translation, which is increasingly in demand for the understanding of the subjects; literary translation must pay attention to both text and texture of both the languages with a comparison to language for special purpose translation(Abdullah & Jackson, 1998)(3).
Major objectives of the assignment are to identify and describe the semantic relation between macro structures and micro structures of the translation models, to compare the behavior of both the structures in the literary products, to examine the inter textual relations and inter systemic relation and to construct a translation model( Mohammad, 1989)(4).
The research questions of the study are the type of similarities and differences between Arabic and English with respect to the languages pairs which may occur in translating the macrostructures and microstructures and the translators’ possible choices for handling these structures in the texts as used for the translation process. Theoretical FrameworkDescriptive translation model as applied for determining the theoretical and practical approaches to the degree of interaction facilitate in the literary translation like Arabic into English.
Translations are suitable data for multi lingual studies because the exercise has the potential to provide contrastive –linguistic insights. However, translation with contrastive text linguistic is still in its rudimentary stages. He has stated that its modeling strategy can be useful as contrastive purposes and to the theoretical study with practical pursuit of translation. Toury in 1985 has classified translation as comparative study into three distinct categories as comparative study of different target translation of one selected text into another language as the target language.
The other two categories include comparative study on different phases and comparative study of one text into another language that is for example in the instant case from Arabic to English for translation purposes with descriptive model of translation. Corpus is a collection of return texts, are in the shape of a collection of spoken material used for the linguist investigation in terms of frequencies and structures. Translation based on Corpus has been taken different shapes from the Corpus linguistic which had begun during the 1960s, and has become data source for descriptive translation study.
Corpora are the suitable material for language engineering and machine translation from one language to another. Majority of the Corpora studies as included for the completion of the study are monolingual in nature and are included to cater the needs of linguists for their literary works. Corpora in translation can be categories into three basic categories as (a) monolingual, (b) bilingual and (c) Multilingual. However, they are interested in the abstracts, global notions, such as explication and simplification of the structure which are independent of specific language and have different manifestations on the surface for translation.
Bilingual comparative study as in the shape of translation from one language that is from Arabic to another language like English has provided an arrangement for the evaluation of the study models for translation(Abu-Ruqaueq & Anwar, 2000)(5). Descriptive model has an edge over other model of translation as the same has included macro structure of any text for its translation from the selected text to the target text.
They range over phonological, lexicogrammatical, graphological and proposition including speech acts (Fattah, 1988) (6). The microstructure of the languages both text language and the target language deal with the linguistic aspects that had provided information to the macrostructure. Being a qualitative study with descriptive translating model has its limitation to the aspects of the macrostructures and microstructures of the texts under translation which are conceive problematic in translation and has its impacts on certain languages including Arabic and English(Latif, 1983)(7). The study intends to help professional translators, interpreters, translation students and language learner to know about the occurrence of some language phenomena of the languages in translation (Atari, Omar Fayez, 1983) (8).
The study has been completed in the shape of sections including introduction, framework for translation with different models and descriptive and qualitative model as selected models for the completion of the study, introductory discussion, in depth analysis of the translation problems involved in the descriptive model and conclusion. Introductory Discussion Appearance of Islam in 6th Century had played double role in that its believers had spread the religion and the Arabic language to many places.
The poets of the language was highly respected and considered as the spokes man of their tribe. Arabic language is one major language of the world like other languages like French, Greek, Spanish, Russian and English. Its rich literary heritage has its relationship to the middle ages until modern age have given to the language an undeniable universality (Nasser, 1982) (9). Muslim and Arabs consider Arabic as a God-given language which has a unique beauty and majesty. Spread of Islam has contributed to the spread Arabic language in many parts of the world including Africa, Asia and Europe.
It had replaced some of the languages in many parts of the world like hieroglyphic in Egypt and African languages in Sudan. Christian-inspired feeling has demonstrated with increasing clarity that had in the religion both in Islam and Christianity with increasing clarity for Arabic and English. However, the political revolution which took place in the Abbasid period had contributed to linguistic revolution for both English as well as for Arabic. The translation from Arabic to English has played a unifying the Arab nation in term of their culture and communication.
The concepts have worked in blocking the emergence of dialects as official language including Arabic and Greek. Arabic is a language with characteristics like hindrance to borrow words as it scarcely compare to other languages like French and English. Arabic depends on the use of calques concerning technical and scientific lexicons (Burtoff, 1983) (10). However, the speaker of Arabic react both the language and the music in similar manner except that their reaction to the language is probably deeper, intense and emotional (Yousef, 1975) (11).
The following comparison between the two languages that is between English and Arabic will explain the status as: A. Good morning/day! Hi! ألف صباح الخير / يوم! مرحبا! B. Good night! Hi! باء مساء الخير! مرحبا! C. How are you? What is going on brother? جيم كيف حالك؟ ما يجري على أخيه؟English is an Indo-European language and is in the evolutionary process and has differentiated itself from other Indo-European languages by getting rid of complicated and complex grammatical aspects like gender, agreement and subjunctive, with no conservative attitude(Khalil , 1969)(12).
The hybridity of the English language has resulted due to the influence of different tribes that had invaded into the region at different times. The first which was used in England was Celtic language followed by Latin language and subsequently English language. Translation from Arabic to English is on the basis of building and structuring of the words of the two languages. Linguistically, both of these languages depend on the inflectional morphology and derivational morphology like Arabic language uses inflectional morphology with suffix indicate gender and number are both of them at the same time.
These include, ة, - ات, - ون, - ين, - ان, - ين. English on the other hands build its words by use of compound noun and derivation. Descriptive model of translation include nouns and pronouns as part of the language as explained in the following table: chairكرسيTree شجرةThem لهمThemselves أنفسهمIn-depth analysis of the translation problems from Arabic to English along with translating models: Although central to many disciplines of translation including translation from Arabic to English, modalities have not received adequate treatment in the field of contrastive studies like English-Arabic translation (Hamdallah, Rami & Tushyeh, 1993)(13).
As there are no neat Arabic counterparts to the English modals: the only valid arguments for comparison of Arabic into English are, therefore, the semantic-pragmatic ones which are helpful in the completion of the study. The present study investigates the relationship between the modality and implications of the translating models like descriptive and qualitative models in English-Arabic translation(Shahir, 1990)(14). The major argument is based on the hypotheses that the speaker’s choice of modals includes expressions signals for both the degree and type of involvement in the content of the message as in translation, and consequently the interpretation of textual implications for the process(Hamid, 1989)(15).
The study demonstrates that there are other textual means of expressing modality in the language like Arabic that go beyond the immediate verbal construction during the translation process. In some contexts, the whole procedure will determine the degree of epistemic modality. The paper attempts to explore shifts and transitions in translating modal patterns with descriptive model as a choice a between English and Arabic with a view to assessing their overall effects in the translation process.
The examples cited had shown that the shift in rendering selected text modals often entails an alteration in the possible interpretation of their meanings in the target text(Hussein, 1984)(16). In sensitive contexts, like religious texts, political treaties between the nations of the world and negotiations among member countries of the international bodies like United Nation, Economic Corporation Organization, African unions, business deals among individuals and organization and court testimonies, some changes may have grave consequences on the whole translation process along with the models like qualitative and descriptive model (Fredrick, 1986) (17).
The notions of ‘indeterminacy’ remain paramount in the overall process along with translating texts between these two languages that is between Arabic and English(Malcolm, 1982)(18). The paper had highlighted the problems, issues and procedural details for the completion of the translation process with comprehensive and meaningful texts both the selected as well as the target texts. Conclusion: The role of linguistic along with the mechanism like translation from one language to another and in the instant case from Arabic to English has helped in the identification of similarities between the two languages as selected for the process.
The mechanism of translation with the selected descriptive model has highlighted the differences between the two languages along with their kinds and varieties as are applied in the translation process. Both of these languages are having their unique spoken and written forms for delivery and exchange of ideas. The translation of the selected language that is Arabic to English has illustrated the concepts of both the languages their acquisition, changes and standards of languages as are applied in different ages for the completion of the translation process.
Language has played a role as a unifying factor with in the country as well as at abroad therefore; translation has gone further as in the form of unifying factor among the nations of the world across the geographical boundaries.