The paper "Frederick Taylor, Henry Fayol and Elton Mayo’ s Theories of Management" is a great example of management coursework. For proper management to be achieved, different theorists have tried to put into place theories as well as framework to follow in order to increase the productivity of workers as well achieve the organization’ s objectives (Macionis & Plummer 2009). Examples are the scientific theory by Frederick Taylor, administrative theory by Henry Fayol and human relation theory by Elton Mayo. These theories are similar in that some aspects repeat themselves. Mastrangelo, Eddy & Lorenzet (2004) says that the three theories try at looking at how to manage workers for increased productivity.
The scientific theory by Taylor came up with techniques for improving the efficiency of the work process. Taylor did a systematic study of the individual in the workplace, their tasks and work behavior. From his study, he concluded that if work is broken into small units and different individuals are assigned to specific tasks, work will be completed efficiently (Ritzer 2009). Henry Fayol in his theory advocated for the management interaction with workers for efficiency and more productivity of the workers.
He said for more productivity there must be proper organization, planning, commanding, coordinating as well as controlling of employees by the management (Ritzer 2009). Elton Mayo in his theory, after numerous experiments in Hawthorne, concluded that for the productivity of workers to increase there must be a supportive team (Ritzer 2009). The three theories are similar in that they aim at making productivity of workers more no matter the process followed. The theories by Henry, Elton and Frederick stress on good cooperation between workers and managers though at different levels.
Frederick and Henry believe that there must be vertical communication between workers and managers as well as lateral communication between workers themselves. This communication according to them is aimed at giving instructions on what should be done and how (Quinn, Faerman, Thompson, McGrath & St Clair 2007). Elton in his theory believes that the worker's needs should be communicated informally so as they are satisfied as they work to enhance efficiency. The theories, although at different levels, are pointing on cooperation between workers and managers through communication (Ritzer 2009).
Although at some point Taylor believed for worker productivity to increase there must be the money aspect, he stressed cooperation between workers and their managers for easier giving of instructions. Fayol, on the other hand, believed in authority and discipline of workers but by the end of it all, there must be communication from managers to workers who will obey and hence there is cooperation as work continues (Samson and Daft 2009). Mayo in his theory looked at human beings as social men meaning they had more non-economic needs which, according to him must be communicated to the managers for cooperation to be achieved in the workplace (Samson and Daft 2009).
Whichever the method, the three theories are stressing on cooperation and effective communication for the realization of organizational goals and objectives. The three theories have acknowledged the importance of workers motivation as they work to achieve their objections. Though in different dimensions, they tend to show that workers must be motivated to realize their goals (Mastrangelo, Eddy & Lorenzet 2004). Taylor in his scientific theory believes workers must be paid according to their work for them to be satisfied as they work and their productivity to increase.
He adds by saying the provision of the necessary tools and equipment to the workers gives them a sense of being motivated towards work. Fayol in his theory acknowledges that workers should be given initiative in whatever they do for them to be motivated. He also says that management should take measures to foster the morale of their workers and encourage them to keep working. In his theory remuneration has been considered as an important motivator although by putting into consideration a number of possibilities because according to him there is no perfect system, but motivation is necessary to any productive worker (Macionis & Plummer 2009).
In his theory Mayo looks at motivation differently, he shows that respectful treatment of workers makes them feel motivated. According to him, workers should have a sense of participation, recognition, belonging, social interaction, morale and human pride for them to feel motivated towards work. Mayo views informal relationships in the workplace give the workers a sense of being attracted to their work and productivity increases due to motivation (Macionis & Plummer 2009).
Macionis, J. & Plummer, K 2009, Sociology: A Global Introduction, 4th edition, Pearson Education Limited, New York.
Mastrangelo, A., Eddy, E.R., & Lorenzet, S.J. 2004, The Importance of Personal and Professional Leadership, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol 25, No. 5, pp. 437- 451.
Quinn, R. E., Faerman, S. R., Thompson, M. P., McGrath, M. R. & St Clair, L. S. 2007, Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing Values Approach, John Wiley & Sons. U.S.
Ritzer, G 2009, The McDonaldization of Society, Pine Forge Press, Los Angeles.
Samson, D. and Daft, R. 2009, Fundamentals of Management, 3rd Asia Pacific ed. South Melbourne, Vic: Cengage Learning, Australia.