Nine "Cultural Dimensions" Russia China Performance Orientation This country shows significantly low trend in encouraging and rewarding various group members for overall performance improvement, creativity and innovation, excellence and exceptional high standards (Beugré, 2007). There is limited personal responsibility and follow up to identify the outcome of projects. In China those who achieve improved performance, show excellence and innovation in their endeavors within the society are widely appreciated by the government and non-government institutions (Matsumoto & Juang, 2012). This promotes hard work, creativity and spirit of excellence. Individuals and groups are interested in feedback and follow up on their innovations and increased accountability. Institutional Collectivism The Russian federation shows significantly high trend in collective participation among the societal and institutional practices (Gunkel, 2006).
In this regard much emphasis is put on collective reward, distribution of resources and general action. In this system, incentives for individual autonomy and freedom are significantly low to encourage communism. China has strong belief in organizational institutional practices that promote collective participation, distribution of resources and reward such that the spirit of self-reliance is relatively diminished among individuals (Beugré, 2007).
This promotes cohesiveness and homogeneous organizational cultures. Gender Egalitarianism Russia shows high degree of minimal gender role gaps such that gender equality is relatively high. This can be seen in its all gender participatory economy where women take all kinds of jobs previously secured for men (Gilliland, Steiner & Skarlicki, 2001). This is a positive development that sees it strong in promoting equal opportunity for both sexes in its socio-economic and political framework. China has relatively higher gender roles gaps in which more opportunities are available for men than women. This exhibits emphasis on patriarchy and unequal distribution of resources and inefficient gender mainstreaming campaign (Strauss, 2007).
However, there is a gradual growth in terms of gender equality though it is still comparatively lower than Russia. Uncertainty Avoidance Russian society shows significantly low reliance on established bureaucratic procedures and social norms as a tool of avoiding future uncertainties. This means it fails to effectively use the existing socio-economic and political structures to counter the unforeseen disturbances in the economy, social system and political institutions (Marsh, 2011). China shows a relatively high belief in existing bureaucratic system and social norm to mitigate the possibility of uncertain future problems (Gunkel, 2006).
This society strongly believes in using the existing socio-economic and political framework to combat any probable challenge that may shake the economy. In-Group Collectivism Future Orientation This nation has lower degree to which its society engages in future-oriented behaviors that include strategic planning, investment among others (Beugré, 2007). The effect is perilous in the sense that people cannot predict the future with certainty. This society is less concerned about sustainability and is opportunistic in the negative perspective. China believes that current actions explain the future.
It therefore relies on planning, setting future investment targets and regulating socio-economic behavior to ensure sustainability (Beugré, 2007). In that regard, the society is very careful with their present actions and avoids insensitive opportunistic behaviors. Humane Orientation This is a society where there is low degree of social organizations appreciating, encouraging or rewarding individuals on the basis of ethical practices and desirable behaviors like generosity, kindness among other virtues (Strauss, 2007). China tends to reward virtue through economic incentives and moral applause. This is a society where discipline, fairness, friendliness and kindness is greatly rewarded to promote a cohesive community and collective socio-economic and political progress (Gilliland, Steiner & Skarlicki, 2001). Assertiveness There is high aggressiveness in social relationships among individuals.
This explains high assertive behavior that is common among the Russian people. In this country the people have more freedom to express personal opinion and criticize what they feel inappropriate (Gunkel, 2006). Level of human rights adherence by the social and political institutions is relatively high. Cases of violence are rife in this nation and this translates to relatively high crime statistics. China has a relatively low social and institutional aggressive and confrontational behavior in social relationships.
This means limited opportunity to express personal feelings to others. This country has significantly rigid social framework with inadequate opportunities of human rights (Strauss, 2007). Constrained self-expression and strict adherence to social norms make this country experience relatively lower crime rates. Power Distance Russia is characterized by societal belief that power should be concentrated at higher levels of the government. This evident in its strong executive who vests significant socio-economic and political decision on the president, prime minister and other top government agencies (Gilliland, Steiner & Skarlicki, 2001).
There is limited decentralization of various decisions making agencies and this negate its federal policies and institutional framework. The political structure of China also has a strong higher level authority. This means that people are tuned towards less decentralization of power and over reliance on government decisions on various issues affecting the people (Beugré, 2007). This aspect is almost similar to Russia owing to their common communist ideology. References Beugré, C. D. (2007). A cultural perspective of organizational justice. Charlotte, N.C: Information Age Pub. Gilliland, S., Steiner, D., & Skarlicki, D.
(2001). Theoretical and cultural perspectives on organizational justice. Greenwich, Conn: Information Age Pub. Gunkel, M. (2006). Country-compatible incentive design: A comparison of employees performance reward preferences in Germany and the USA. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag. Marsh, C. (2011). Religion and the state in Russia and China: Suppression, survival, and revival. New York: Continuum. Matsumoto, D. R., & Juang, L. P. (2012). Culture and psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Strauss, J. C. (2007). The history of the PRC (1949-1976). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.