The paper "Consumer Decision-making - Internal Factors of Toyota Australia " is a perfect example of a business case study. Consumer needs and motivation are the most important factors affecting the consumer-making decision. Motivation can be defined as the desire or the driving force to achieve some outcome. A couple of interrelated internal factors can affect a consumer’ s desire to achieve some outcomes (Schiffman, O’ Cass, Paladino, D’ Alessandro, & Bednall, 2011, p. 55). For instance, when a consumer is trying to decide whether to purchase a Toyota Camry, his or her motivation may be affected by the financial position (i. e., whether he or she can afford the vehicle), time constraints (i. e., how soon to purchase the vehicle), perceived risk (i. e., the sustainability of the vehicle), and the overall value in buying the specific vehicle (i. e., the vehicle’ s ability to fulfil the perceived role).
Motivation has significant implications for marketing because it is closely tied to involvement. In making a purchase decision, the amount of effort that a consumer exerts in the process of decision-making is significant. Highly motivated consumers get involved both mentally and physically in the effort to make a comprehensive decision.
However, some products, like basic goods, do not require highly motivated customers. Marketers play a key role in making large sales of their products by ensuring that the consumers are well-fed with the information on such products through promotional campaigns (Lancaster & Massingham, 2010, p. 64). 9 Motivation can be better understood through a motivation model which has four concepts. The first concept, learning, can be defined as a process of acquiring knowledge which will be used in future purchasing decisions. The second concept is tension, which is a force arising from an unfulfilled need.
The third concept, drive, is an internal force that impels a consumer to undertake an action geared to satisfy certain needs. Finally, the fourth concept is the cognitive process, which is an attitude model of knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions about a specific product or service (Schiffman et al. , 2011, p. 57). 9 When making the decision to purchase Toyota Camry and its parts, the consumer is guided by the need he or she has to satisfy certain goals. There are two types of needs: primary (innate) and secondary (psychogenic), which are needs learnt from a culture like prestige and affection.
Marketers should be concerned with the product’ s specific goals in order to meet both types of needs. Failure to meet the goals results in frustration. For instance, a consumer who purchases a Toyota Camry with the goal of being served by the vehicle for ten years will be frustrated if the vehicle breaks down only two years after purchase. 10 Theoretically, Maslow’ s Hierarchy of Needs can be used to understand consumer motivations since consumer goods are used to satisfy a need level.
Maslow identified five levels of needs and noted that people tend to satisfy the lower levels first, after which other needs emerge, as illustrated in the model below. Advertisers use Maslow’ s theory as the basis of segmentation strategy in their advertising campaigns (Lancaster & Massingham, 2010, p. 66). In positioning, the theory can be used to identify market gaps in terms of needs. For instance, Toyota Australia manufactured the Toyota Camry with a VVTi engine that has six-cylinder alloys, is fuel-efficient, has improved safety, has increased power, and is efficient in environmental performance; this makes the model unique and well-liked by many people (Griffin & Egan, 2005, p.
25). The hierarchy identifies the market gaps by determining which consumer needs are not meet in the hierarchy. For instance, after the basic needs are met by the target population, the marketer can speculate that the consumers will need vehicles for comfort. 10
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