related literatureThe review of related literature covers various information on Alzheimer’s disease basically involving discussion of nine articles equally divided from three various sources i. e. medical journals, public health journals and communications journals. Information from these literatures is concisely presented to provide a good literature background about the disease as well to find similarities and differences in the article’s views or presentation of Alzheimer’s disease. Literature from Medical Journals1. Review and discussion of informationThe article from the New England Journal of Medicine talks about the early onset of Alzheimer’s disease written by Claudia H.
Kawas, M.D. The clinical problem of Alzheimer’s disease is the major factor in cases of dementia. It is said that the disease develops into dementia especially for patients diagnosed with mild case of cognitive impairment. The risk is higher after the age of 65 years old. Kawas cited the National Institute of Neurologic and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association in establishing the criteria for onset of Alzheimer’s disease in a patient which said that “the cognitive loss must have an insidious onset and gradual progression” (Kawas, C.
, 2003:1058) which means that the person’s ability to perceive has been affected dangerously resulting to changed behavior through the years. Thus, it is important to note the history of the patient’s actions to be able to determine the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Diagnosis should be aided by an in depth neuropsychological evaluation of the patient. Management of patients with Alzheimer’s disease includes prescribing mild medications which usually include sleeping pills, anti-anxiety medication and over-the-counter medications for sleep and cold symptoms. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Cholinesterase inhibitor, an effective drug for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (Kawan, C., 2003).
Antioxidants is another pharmacological treatment that helps reduce the production of free radicals in patients with Alzheimer’s disease that usually cause damage to the brain. Clinician’s judgment is a crucial factor in determining the dosage and length of treatment of symptoms of the disease. Also, safety precautions are important in managing patients with Alzheimer’s disease particularly in supervising the daily activities of the patient including driving, handling of household appliances or simply wandering around the neighborhood.
People with Alzheimer’s disease tend to forget how to do these things and might eventually harm themselves. The second article reviewed was about the use of memantine in moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease (Reisberg, B., Doody, R., Stoffler, A., Schmitt, F., & Ferris, S., Mobious, H., 2003). There is still no known cure for cognitive and functional capacity impairments of patients with advance stages of Alzheimer’s disease wherein patients are continuously distressed which becomes a burden to caregivers. This study tested the effect of memantine in the treatment of such stage of the disease.
N-methyl-D-aspartate or NMDA is a brain receptor stimulated by the neurotransmitter glutamate which affects Alzheimer’s disease. Memantine is an antagonist to the NMDA-receptor which can assist in the therapy of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. It was administered to 252 patients’ ages 50 years old with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease within a 28 week period across 32 centers in the United States of America. The study showed the patients taking memantine showed better results in terms of cognition, function, and behavior.
Thus, concluding that “antiglutamatergic treatment reduced clinical deterioration in moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease” (Reisberg, B. et al, p.1333.).