Essays on Organisational Culture at Apple, Google, Toyota, Samsung, Qantas Airline and Motorola Case Study

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The paper "Organisational Culture at Apple, Google, Toyota, Samsung, Qantas Airline and Motorola" is a good example of a management cases study.   Each and every company has its own culture. According to Wooten (2010), and organizational culture entails “ the shared beliefs, principles, values, and assumptions that shape behavior by building commitment, providing direction, establishing a collective identity, and creating a community” (p. 8). Thus, culture manifests itself in the overall behavior of the company in order for the organization to adapt to the environment it operates. Essentially, the culture holds the company strategy together.

However, culture is only effective if the management is able to align it with values, resources, goals, and the organization’ s environment. This paper discusses the statement that “ organizational culture is a sophisticated method to control employees” . 2.0 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture The first model of organizational culture is based on Rowe et al. (1994) works. In their model, they postulate that there are four typologies of organizational culture. Their argument is that organization cultures exhibit certain clues that can be used to initiate change (p. 473). The first culture that they identify is a productive culture.

The theme exhibited in this is on efficiency and consistency under a controlled environment. These are the organizations that are resistant to change. The second is the quality culture. In this, they note that organizations seek to guarantee the development of employees through a problem-solving platform. Thus, they are more adaptive to change. Next is creative culture. Under this approach, innovation is the order of the day. This means that the organization is more risk-taking. The last is a supportive culture. In this cultural environment, teamwork is embodied in all their processes. The other theoretical perspective that can be used to analyze the concept of culture is based on the Hellriegel approach.

Hellriegel et al. (2004, p. 365) in his framework develops a typology that outlines four types of culture. The first that he identifies is bureaucratic culture. In this perspective, the organization culture aims at instilling efficiency, stability, and predictability by clearly stating expected responsibilities (Hellriegel et al. , 2004, p. 366). The second typology that he identifies is clan culture. This typology is demarcated by traditions, personal commitment, teamwork, and loyalty.

The hallmark of the approach is to focus internally and have flexible formal control (p. 366). The third element identified in this framework is the entrepreneurial culture. This kind of culture is exhibited by high risk-taking where organizations react very first to opportunities (p. 367). If successful, it leads to faster growth. The last under his approach is market culture. Under this approach, the organization is oriented towards economic gain. The arrangement between employer and employee is usually on a contractual basis with the reward based on performance (367). The third theoretical perspective can be derived from Harrison and Stokes model (1992).

The first under their model is power-oriented culture. They postulate that this is found in small organizations where actions and strategies revolve around an individual. The person in control of these resources uses it to control the organization by reward or disciplining (p. 14). The second is role orientation where procedures and rules take precedent rather than individual action. This results in bureaucracy, checks, and control (p. 15). The third is achievement orientation where employees are aligned with the vision, mission, and purpose they exist to serve.

In this context, all operations of individuals must be in tandem with organizational goals (Harrison & Stokes, 1992, p. 17). The last under their framework is support-oriented culture. The basis of this cultural approach is that employers and employees are critical to organizational success. This is a support-based framework (p. 20).

References

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Harrison, R., and Stokes, H. 1992. Diagnosing Organisational Culture. New York: Pfeiffer and Company

Hellriegel, D., Jackson, S.E., Slocum, J., Staude, G., Amos, T., Klopper, H.B., Louw, L., and Oosthuizen, T. 2004. Management (2nd South African ed). Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa

Iliev, V., Lindinger, A. & Poettler, G. 2004. Apple Computer Inc. Strategic Audit. Retrieved on 10 September, 2012 from: http://www.andreaslindinger.net/downloads/strategicmgmts- lindingeretal.pdf.

Kim, R. 2007. Samsung’s Competitive Innovation and Strategic Intent for Global Expansion. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 5(3): 131-137.

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Martin, J. 2001. Organisational behaviour (2nd ed). London: Thomson Learning

Modi et al, 2010. Software Engineering Team Project on Apple, Inc. Retrieved on 10 September, 2012 from: http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~patali/files/Apple_Inc.pdf.

Qantas 2012. Our Company. Retrieved on 10 September, 2012 from: http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/company/global/en

Rowe, A.J., Mason, R.O., Dickel, K.E., Mann, R.B., and Mockler, R.J. 1994. Strategic Management: A methodological approach (4th ed). New York: Addison-Wesley

Wooten, L. P., 2010. Building a Company the Steve Jobs’ Way: A Positive Deviance Approach to Strategy. Retrieved on 10 September, 2012 from: http://www.bus.umich.edu/NewsRoom/pdf/wootenjobspaperFINAL1.pdf.

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