Phase 1 Discussion Board 2 – Coursework Example
Ethics Ethics The phrase “ethical relativism” consists of a number of various beliefs, however, they all are in agreement that thereis no permanent, universal criteria to establish what may not or may be an ethical act. Thus, God gave no divine command; in addition, human nature portrays no universal law. Consequently, consequences lack bearing since every society or individual can construe the “rightness” of every consequence in a different manner. Additionally, ethical relativism instructs that the ethics of a society develop over time and change to suit situations. There are numerous aspects of ethical relativism, which claims that universal truth is not possible to establish or is a myth, but admits at the same time that ethical behavior is non-existence (MacKinnon, 2012).
On the other hand, utilitarianism is mostly typified by 2 components; consequentialism and happiness. Happiness in utilitarianism is the largest happiness which allegedly, is searched for by every human being. As far as utilitarianism is concerned, everything helpful to happiness is deemed good. Consequently, the doctrine’s name is utilitarianism, derived from utility principle. Utility is usually in anything that adds to the happiness of every normal being. On the other hand, consequentialism in this case, is in the fact that an act should be judged for its consequences on the happiness of the biggest number. This is to mean that an individual’s search for happiness stops when it reduces the happiness of another person or the happiness of the biggest number, of community or the society (Bykvist, 2010).
Kant’s categorical imperative can be described as the Immanuel Kant’s key philosophical idea in the deontological moral philosophy. Introduced by Kant in 1785, it can be described as a method of assessing motivations for particular action(s).Human beings according to Kant, occupy an exceptional place in creation where morality may be summarized in an ultimate or an imperative commandment of motive, from which all obligation and duties derive. Kant described an imperative as being any proposition asserting that a specific action or inaction to be compulsory.
One practical application of utilitarianism is in my personal life. Many are times when I am faced by a situation which requires me to make decisions. I therefore naturally think of the consequences of my actions and usually have to decide on whether to go on/or not with the action.
Bykvist, K. (2010). Utilitarianism: A Guide for the Perplexed. New York,NY: Bloomsbury Academic.
MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues. New York,NY: Cengage Brain.