Crisis ManagementIntroductionThere are numerous literatures and research on crisis management and it has been in the increase over the last decade following varied crises witnessed globally such as the Haiti earthquake, the earthquake tsunami in Japan, the SARS outbreak, the Hurricane Katrina and the bomb attacks on the US on September 11 among others. Primarily, crisis entails a set of external events over which no one has control (Mitroff, 2003). What one has control over and that which they ought to manage are the response to the event. Effective response to crisis therefore lies in having well-developed, synchronized, flexible and reviewed response plans (Smith & Dan, 2002).
A crisis can be termed as any situation, which within a short duration of time causes harm in terms of destruction of life and property. Smith & Dan (2002) defines crisis management as the concept of managing and coordinating responses to an event that threatens to harm or has caused damage on people, property, valuables, and reputation and hinders the capacity of people or even organizations to operate. Crisis management encompasses planning and applying the right response as the event unfolds.
In addition, it consists of techniques and strategies used to respond to perceived or actual threats, developing metrics to define crisis and thus, triggering appropriate response mechanism and it includes communication, which takes place within the response phase of emergency management situations (Mitroff, 2003). The 2011 Tsunami in Japan will have a significant impact on how a crisis is managed and already several countries around the world are undertaking an in depth analysis of their preparedness to deal with a large scale tsunami.
Many programs have been developed in order to improve public safety during tsunami emergencies. This informs the report which seeks to research, analyze, and discuss what recent recommendations have been made. Preparedness to deal with large scale crises such as the earthquake tsunamiTypically, there are various types of crises namely technological crises, malevolence, confrontation, organization misconduct, workplace violence, rumors, terror attacks and natural disasters. Tsunamis fall under the natural disasters since they are ecological phenomena that bring harm to people and generate destruction to the environment and property. Tsunamis are usually a sequence of extraordinarily huge waves created by a disturbance of a high-level magnitude to the water body.
Tsunamis are majorly caused by earthquakes on the ocean floor which reverberate to the shores, landslides, explosions and often at times by both land and oceanic volcanoes. Crises are often not as massive and as appalling as the 2011 earthquake tsunami in Japan which spiraled further with the fear of leakage in the Fukushima nuclear power plant which necessitated the massive evacuations. Mitroff, (2003) suggests that regardless of the scale of a crisis, it is important to be constantly vigilant and ready which involves having the capacity to manage the crisis, accessing adequate resources and more importantly being resilient to carry on with operations.
Japan is among nations globally that is most resilient, ready and adequately prepared for crises such as tsunamis, but nothing could have prepared the country for the 2011, earthquake tsunami and it’s after effects (Nakahara, 2011). Among emergency preparedness plans generated based on the crises and the recommendations generated from observing the tsunami in Japan indicates that the best recovery of both people and property in case of major crises such as the tsunami occur when prompt and decisive actions are taken to respond to the immediate crisis, when involved stakeholders communicate efficiently and openly and when there is practical consideration for the bereaved, the injured and the frightened (Patrick, 2011).