The paper "Tsunami Management Systems Used in the Some Countries" is a good example of a literature review on environmental studies. In 2004, there was a tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean that caused great losses of life and property. The same thing happened again on March 11th, 2011 just off Japan’ s North-Eastern coast. In the latest crisis, waters o the Pacific Ocean fanned out of to the land, where thousands of people along the coast were displaced, killed, and injured. Additionally, the Fukushima nuclear station in Japan suffered serious damage, while thousands of people were evacuated from the dangerous zone.
These unfortunate incidences left a substantial effect on how the countries in the world manage the crisis. Several programs have been put in place so as to warn, control, manage, and warn against large scale tsunami occurrences in various parts of the world. Therefore, this essay explores some of the tsunami management systems used in some countries, as well as ways in which local communities and governments can effectively prepare for these emergencies. What is a Tsunami Hazard? ESRI (2006, pp. 6-40) notes that tsunamis refer to large and long water waves that result from submarine volcanic explosions, underwater earthquakes, or the effect of outer space bodies, such as, landslides and meteorites.
As a tsunami advances to the seashore, a large amount of energy that was previously accumulated in the extensive wavelength is transmitted to wave light with appalling outcomes. Specifically, bays, estuaries, and gulfs are some of the most susceptible coastlines. These inlets’ shapes form a funnel-shaped tsunami that intensifies into a huge and heavy water wall that crashes in the land with great power.
The first wave to hit the coastline is often the highest of all. A sequence of waves forms more destruction than a single one (Bernard 2005, pp. 121-130). Therefore, the people and structures able to flee from the first wave are more prone to the next waves. Some of the effects of the tsunami disasters include trampled coral reefs, gouache beaches, the decimation of mangrove trees, changed coastlines, and flooded vegetation and rice with marine water.
Bernard, EN 2005, Developing tsunami-resilient communities: the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, Springer, Dordrecht Norwell, MA. Pp. 121-130.
Bernard, EN & Robinson, AR 2009, The sea, ideas and observations on progress in the study of the seas, Interscience Publishers, New York. Pp. 71-80.
ESRI 2006, GIS and Emergency Management in Indian Ocean Earthquake/Tsunami Disaster, United States of America. Pp. 6-40. http://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/gis- and-emergency-mgmt.pdf
Heaton, B 2011, Japan Tsunami Response Aided by High-Tech Warning. Disaster Preparedness & Recovery System. Emergency Management. Retrieved March 20th, 2012.http://www.emergencymgmt.com/disaster/Japan-Tsunami-Warning-System-031111.html
Karan, PP & Subbiah, SP 2011, The Indian Ocean tsunami the global response to a natural disaster, University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. Pp. 100-115.
Mittal, AK, 2011, U. S. Tsunami Preparedness: NOAA Has Expanded Its Tsunami Programs
DIANE Publishing, New York. Pp. 1-20.
Morrissey, WA 2007, CRS Report for Congress. Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems, Information Research Specialist (Science & Technology) Knowledge Services Group. Pp. 1-30. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32739.pdf
NOAA. National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration, Tsunami. Retrieved on March 19th, 2012. http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/prepare.html
Shaw, R 2006, Recovery from the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster, Emerald Group Pub, Bradford, England. Pp. 92-105.