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NameTutorTitle: Crisis Response and Flight Crew SkillsInstitutionDateIntroductionAviation and underwater environment present unique demands on human physiology. It is apparent that humans are adapted to live on land usually at a low altitude. With the recent invention of self contained underwater breathing equipments human being have chosen to be exposed to different environments that have a significant physical, physiological and the psychological effects on the human body. The exposure has triggered the rise in aeromedical clinicians. The clinician should have better information and sound knowledge on the possible effects, since aeromedical retrieval of the injured divers is increasing common.

Injured victim are usually transported through use of aircraft. In this case, Air transport occasionally will call for adaptive capacity among the crew members, the working conditions demands that effective safety measures be of great essence, thus creation of the Crew resource management. A crew resource management is a procedure aimed at training crew members on safety measures among other activities (Macarthur, 1998). The training is used to improve air safety. CRM focuses on interpersonal communication skills, leadership and decision making. The training was originally done during the NASA workshop in 1979, identifying the primary cause involving aviation frequent accidents being human error.

CRM has continuously been adapted to different industries and organizations. This includes instances like designed fire services to improve situations on the fire ground; another example can be the marine industry, where Bridge Resource Management is responsible for safety improvement in the marine industry (Macarthur, 1998). The Crew Resource Management has objectives on fostering a culture where, it allows respectful questions concerning the authority is encouraged. On the other hand, the primary objective that concerns CRM is to improve the international safety in the space station, NESA and other participating nations have study programs involving processes designed to help the crew members on mechanism of escaping from the threatening space stations.

The study aims at developing assurance over the crew return vehicle, promising freedom in the space station. The provisional vehicle was simple to operate, reliable and available at all orbit stations. After a proven effective measures, plans to develop has further been improved it a dual vehicle approach using Soyuz and the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV).

A further step over safety measures has been improved place by allocating a permanent vehicle attached to take care of any emergency cases (Macarthur, 1998). According to Gaffney (2005) views that CRM has to develop strategies of meeting the fetal accident that on raise currently. CRM training encompasses a wide range of knowledge and skills that include communications, situation awareness, problem solving, decision making and team work. Together with other technical modes creates an optimum use of the least available resources. The system is designed to promote safety and improve the crew efficiency in their operations.

There are three important missions that can help death threatening incidents; this requires deployment of the ISS crew rescue system. Mission one has requirements concerning medical emergencies; it requires evacuation within a day, to any injury or illness in crew member. The second mission requires station emergencies do an immediate evacuation since delay would lead to life support failure. Mission three deals with logistical interruption, the crew has to plan for a coherent and well laid out evacuation system to avoid re-supply failure.

Air transport is the world’s dominantly important industry. Its development, technical and service delivery is of great quality making it the best contributor towards modern society advancement. However, it remains dynamic in a sense concerning the crew conditions, these calls for creation of effective and safe crew escape vehicles, it is important that the designer of the air equipment has to understand the likely conditions of the crew in the event a worst incident occurs. The effect of human physiology and psychology of exposure to the space environment is clearly documented.

There are key technical issues that should be redesigned in addressing the system definition of crew recovery equipments. Following through the Aviation leads it is reported that in 1977, accident involving two Boeing 747s collided while on the runway located in the Canary Islands, killing estimated 582 people. The accident is said to be the largest concerning the Aviation history. This incident led to extensive examination in the industry in such to determination to find out cause of the aviation accidents. The study reveals that about 80% of the aviation accidents were occurred due to human error.

Through this, investigation prompted NASA to convene the aviation safety workshop that created CRM training with a common goal of reducing human error in the air transport industry (Gaffney, 2005). There serious measure that have developed on since the initiation of the CRM system. The airline have improve, according to the National transportation Safety Board, the CRM training and effecting its service in every serving air terminal has reduced the risk to around 68% in the period between1980-1990, and about a half in the following decade.

Since 2002 a further risk drop is recorded, with an estimated rate at about 19% cases (Britain, 2004). The Crew Resource Management was first applied in Basel, Switzerland in 1994. The training was then recommended to increase patients’ safety; a move that has been well received as it is advocated for by the National Academies there training programs are being used in different healthcare settings, includes operating rooms, emergency department among others. Their cases were the experts disagrees on modernity of incorporating CRM in healthcare system, potentially CRM is equally valuable to both medicine and aviation, basing on the fact that they both have risk of adverse events that result from human error, the risk may result from dependence on technological innovations, work that involves situation were personnel spend long hours performing tasks that require swiftness, or involve work environment where human error poses significant risk of seriousness.

In the whole view they may be parallel but use systematic methods (Macarthur, 1998). Benefit of the crew accessing informationThere is a tendency in aviation where the crew is given so much information that may not be helpful while planning.

The massage in the information should be clear and straight to the point and focus delivering minimum necessary information. If the crew require to access detailed information it should be provided in time. CRM can develop a system that it is operated under life support system, having adequate light with minimal noise. Create remote CRV that help in major consoles within the ISS, the system should contain both touch displays and voice commands; this effectively creates a clear communication channel (Britain, 2004). It is essential that the crew movement is not restricted.

The rescue van has to navigate easily through the tunnels to the CRV. This task will similarly change according to the ISS growth. However in principle, the path has to be accessible and keep off any unnecessary activities to avoid incidents recurring. While designing the CRV vehicles conceder the physical condition of the user, potential for spatial disorientation, confusion and luck of mobility when gravity holds during entry procedures. This requirement can meet provision of horizontal seating arrangement (McIsaac, 2006).

According McIsaac (2006) views ddesigning the internal layout that caters for adequate crews in the vehicle with a possession specifically for the injured patent. Create a possible access to emergency equipment, and possible restrain the injured individual for there own safety. The injured have to be transferred from the CRMS prior and moved to CRV. Flight controls and decision makingA central aim in CRM is to create a high quality decision across the whole spectrum of flight operations. Pre- flight planning will not only develop a yardstick against in-flight decision made to allow individual crews members contribute effectively manage successfully specific tasks that holds them responsible.

It is important that the captain updates the crew on regular interval regarding any changes on the original plans. This help individual members can maintain good situational awareness (McIsaac, 2006). The information is helpful during abnormal operations or during emergency situations with expected varied conditions affecting the progress of the flight and the safety of the aircraft are likely to change drastically. In these case, regular updates concerning the flight allows each individual crew to be sufficiently aware of the conditions and need of moment to contribute in an effective and efficient way on cases involving decision making process.

It is reported that poor communication among the caregivers is frequently raised as the root cause of all essential events reported. Effective communication involves transmitting informational massages will allow all crew members to clearly understand, this calls for standardized communication in terms of structure (Gaffney, 2005). There are five skills associated with CRM skills can be easily identified as: inquiry, listening, advocacy or assertion, resolving conflict and closing loop.

Creating a standard operating procedures and checklists, this is aimed at reducing likelihood of skipping some of the most important steps, while it seems redundant to have written a procedural document that health practicing personnel may know well and perform it on routing basis, improving these measures will prove useful in reducing errors. According to McIsaac (2006) he argues that skill based behaviors rely to a large extent on prior training and any associated decisions making in the CRM system. It is particularly important that communication between the crew as it is essentially good for CRM, since it establishes the interpersonal relations among the crew members thus fundamental for setting the tone valid for management of the flight.

The communication process may invariably take place in a social and organization The pilot position has to be located at a place where the individual has to perform all aspects in the vehicle with little head and body movement, but have fixed reference points. The prime intention of locating the pilot in that position is to minimize disorientation and illusions.

Use active voice with an essence of activated and minimized head-set mounted displays that may effectively ease the problems (Britain, 2004). Safety measures through Error Reporting The aviation industry benefits from a system that records and transforms error report to the concern aircraft crew members. By effectively reporting the error in time creates likelihood that staff will deal effectively with errors that otherwise lead to serious adverse events. This too deals serves a mechanism to ensure that crew members learn from their errors and take steps preventing possible recurrence.

This in turn develops a culture that encourages reporting of mistakes committed, hence creating a safer practices, the essence of error reduction should be directed towards finding what went wrong other than who made the mistake (Kyle, 2007). Benefits associated with Crew Resource ManagementIt is evident that CRM strategies can be successfully applied in the healthcare setting as well in the Air transport too. These strategies have continuously been recognized many industries including the joint commission, the quality interagency coordination task force that was established by the President Clinton, the national quality Forum, the Agency for healthcare Resource and Quality among many other organizations.

There are several examples of successful CRM strategies that have been used to increase safety of patients, for example in Michigan, the infection rate in ICUs is reported to have reduced by 66% within the first three months of a widespread initiative to apply checklists. It followed that that Michigan’s infection rates fell so low that it’s average ICU out done the 99%of the ICUs nationwide. In the first 18 months after the initiative, hospitals reported a saving of an estimated $175 million and more than 150 lives were saved too (Gaffney, 2005).

A further report shows that the clinical error rate dropped from 31% to an lower rate of a bout 4.4% in a group of nine hospital Emergency Department, where formal group work structure and processes were put in place. the other step involved teamwork initiative in promoting a culture of patient safety and the adverse outcome index in regards to the percentage having one or more than ten identities events, reportedly moved from 47% high-risk involving premature births to lower rate at about 14% for term deliveries, and 16% all through from 2001 to 2004.

This has now become the integral part of how pilots and crews do their roles (Gaffney, 2005). ConclusionThere are measurable qualities in regards to improve communication, service delivery, and improved safety measures among many other concerns in the air and health industries. All these benefits brought about through creation of CRM system within the air industry and other organizations. Among other objectives the CRM’s staff training initiative has further expanded the effectiveness of the system in number of organization, with the main objective being creation a well coordinated staff, increased communication and above all work towards successful safety measures of both the patient and the care gives.


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