The paper "DeChurch et al and Cable and Judge Articles" is a perfect example of a business article. Bass (1985) stated that leadership was a function of how the leader influenced and motivated followers without ignoring the input of others and maintaining the objective. This approach is very much a top-down view of leadership and communication. However, Latham (2013) identifies the need to be communicative across all levels to set direction and strategy. The emphasis here is in clearly defining the objective and communicating it effectively at all levels whether it is strategic or to initiate change; something Latham (2013) stresses is difficult to achieve.
It has long been held that leadership varies across levels and that there is a need to evaluate this as it relates to effectiveness (DeChurch et al. 2010). Cable and Judge (2003) investigate the idea that upward strategic communication varies depending upon the type of recipient such that how information is communicated is actually as much dependent upon the person communicating as it is the type of manager receiving the information. This paper extensively investigates different leadership styles together with the influence of each leadership style. Summary ‘ Leadership across levels: Levels of leaders and their levels of impact’ by DeChurch et al.
(2010) conducts a systematic literature review over the previous twenty-five years to understand the role of leadership and how this impacts on teams and organisations. DeChurch et al. (2010) state that for leadership to achieve successful outcomes it must be consistent across all levels of an organisation. Accordingly, DeChurch et al. (2010) suggest that leadership research is separated into two distinct categories psychologists and business scholars something that was suggested by Zaccaro and Klimoski (2001).
Therefore, DeChurch et al. (2010) approach their research by wanting to look at an integrated approach to leadership so as to formulate ideas for future research in leadership, and not by having a disjunct approach. DeChurch et al (2010) article hinge on the claim that there are three levels of leadership, a bottom level which comprises of leadership which is characterized by supervision roles where there are two main responsibilities; to hire and fire and allocate tasks. The middle management level, on the other hand, is characterized by the establishment of operational roles together with their coordination.
And lastly, the top management level or the strategic leadership which is tasked with vision establishment and/or setting the overall objectives of the organization. From the above establishment, for the organization to achieve the set goals, the leadership across all levels must be consistent. In the same line of review, DeChurch et al (2010), article discusses extensively six types of leadership approaches or theories; trait approach for instance strongly suggests that effective leaders have related leadership characteristics.
The behavioural perspective approach significantly distinguishes effective leadership behaviours from ineffective leadership behaviours. The third approach claim that leadership is leader-member exchange (LMX); this leadership approach states that leaders form differentiated patterns of relationships with their followers or subordinates that vastly culminate into either an in-group or an out-group (Sotaruta, Horlings & Liddle 2012). Consequently, there is a transformational leadership approach; this is just but an extension of the behavioural approach, which largely depends on the leaders’ action to incite the subordinates. The upper echelons perspective of strategic management is the fifth approach.
The sixth and last approach is leadership as a set of shared and distributed function enacted by multiple leaders.
Andersen, J 2006, ‘Leadership, personality and effectiveness’, The Journal of Socio-Economics’, vol. 35, pp.1078-1091.
Avolio, BJ, Zhu, W, Koh, W & Bhatia, P 2004, ‘Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: mediating role of psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distance’, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, vol. 25, pp. 951-968.
Bass, B 1985, Leadership and performance beyond expectations, The Free Press, New York.
Bass, BM & Avolio, BJ 1994, ‘Conclusions and Implications’, in BM Bass & BJ Avolio, (eds), Improving organisational Effectiveness through transformational leadership, pp. 202-217, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Beck, D & Cowan C, 2005, Spiral Dynamics: Mastering Values, Leadership and Change, Wiley, New York
Beerel A, 2013, Leadership and Change Management, SGE, New York.
Cable, D & Judge, T 2003, ‘Managers’ upward influence tactic strategies: the role of manager personality and supervisor leadership style’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 24, pp.197-214.
Daft, R 2008, The Leadership Experience, 4th edn, Thomson South-Western, Ohio.
Daft, R & Pirola-Merlo, A 2009, The Leadership Experience, Cengage Learning, Australia.
Dansereau, F, Alutto, JA, &Yammarino, FJ 1984, Theory testing in organizational behavior: The variant approach, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
DeChurch, L, Hiller, N, Murase, T, Doty, D & Salas, E 2010, ‘Leadership across levels: Levels of leaders and their levels of impact’, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 21, pp.1069-1085.
Fullan, M, 2011, Change Leader: Learning to Do What Matters Most, John Wiley & Sons, London.
Jacobs, T & McGee, M 2001, ‘Competitive advantage: Conceptual imperatives for executives’, cited in Zaccaro, S & Klimoski, R, The nature of organizational leadership: Understanding the performance imperatives confronting today’s leaders, pp. 42-78, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Judge, T & Bono, J 2000, ‘Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.85, no. 5, pp.751-765.
Latham, JR 2013, ‘A Framework for Leading the Transformation to Performance Excellence Part II: CEO Perspectives on Leadership Behaviors, Individual Leader Characteristics, and Organizational Culture’, The Quality Management Journal, vol.20, no.3, pp. 19-40.
Mumford, TV, Campion, MA & Morgeson, FP (2007), ‘The leadership skills strataplex: Leadership skill requirements across organizational levels’, The Leadership Quarterly, vol.18, no.2, pp. 154-166.
Sotaruta, M. Horlings, I, & Liddle J, 2012, Leadership and Change in Sustainable Regional Development, Routledge, London.
Waldman, D, Lituchy, T, Gopalakrishnan, M, Laframboise, K, Galperin, B & Kaltsounakis, Z 1998, ‘A Qualitative Analysis of Leadership and Quality Improvement’, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 9, issue 2, pp.177-201.
Yammarino, F J, Dionne, SD, Chun, JU & Dansereau, F 2005, ‘Leadership and levels of analysis: A state-of-the-science review’, The Leadership Quarterly, vol.16, pp. 879−919.
Zaccaro, S & Klimoski, R 2001, The nature of organisational leadership: An introduction, cited in Zaccaro, S & Klimoski, R, The nature of organizational leadership: Understanding the performance imperatives confronting today’s leaders, pp. 3-41, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.