The paper "Failures and Criticisms of the Universalist Perspective" is a good example of management coursework. The Universalist perspective in international business management holds that human cultures and customs in various regions of the world, especially in terms of business management, are basically uniform, and that similar principles of management can hence be successfully applied in different parts of the world (Wild, Wild & Ball 2016). On the other hand, cultural relativist perspectives assert that successful international business management practices ought to be dependent on the various cultures of different regions since not all business management practices can fit into all the cultures across the world (Jones & George 2016).
Cultural relativists support the idea of using local and traditional approaches in international business. Failures and Criticisms of the Universalist Perspective The use of either the Universalist perspective or the cultural relativist view has since time immemorial been the determinant of success or failure of international business ventures. Numerous research studies and case analyses continue to confirm that in order for cross-cultural negotiation and communication to be successful, comprehension of local or regional cultural practices is vital (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson 2017).
The Universalist perspective proves ineffective time after time in international business operations. Therefore, international organizations do well to conform to the cultures of the new territories that they explore, thus doing as the Romans do when in Rome. Many critics of the Universalist perspective pin its failures on its imperialist and imposing nature. Cultures are forced to conform to a new, foreign and often unwelcome way of doing business, leading to resistance, such as from employees. For instance, when a company from a country that hinders women from holding higher positions of management seeks to venture into another country in which gender equality is valued, the expanding organization may fail to even establish itself in the new location if it holds on to this viewpoint on women and leadership (Wild, Wild & Ball 2016).
The Universalist perspective poses a significant challenge to international business interactions that are cross-cultural. An international business with the Universalist perspective can be perceived as discriminatory to the beliefs of others if it maintains a rigid and a one-size-fits-all approach to international management.
The approach of cultural relativism is hence a better alternative to the Universalist perspective. Cultural relativist perspectives hold that the principles of management can vary based on local cultures, traditions and values. This perspective ensures the greater success of international businesses because of its respect for the potential usefulness of different viewpoints and cultures in international business (Jones & George 2016). Even though cultural relativism is bound to ethical standards such as worker safety, fair play, and environmental protection, the perspective tailors its management in line with the prevailing culture. Impact of Culture on HR Practices Human resource management in international business is a very delicate process since different employees come from various environments and cultures.
Human resource management must, therefore, seek to accommodate each employee within the organization. For an organization to realize its full potential, the policies and practices of the HRM must be designed in a manner that is in congruence with the variety of cultures of the employees (Christopher 2015). HRM practices that are aligned with the cultural factors in the international environment have proven to be very useful in ensuring a competitive advantage.
Bateman, T. S., Snell, S. A., & Konopaske, R. 2017, Management, Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education.
Burrow J., Kleindl, B. A., & Becraft, M. B. 2016, Business Management, Boston, MA: South- Western Cengage Learning.
Christopher, E. 2015, International Management and Inter-Cultural Communication: A Collection of Case Studies, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Deresky, H. 2017, International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures: Text and Cases, Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. 2017, Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization: Concepts, Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Jones, G. R., & George, J. M. 2016, Contemporary management, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Wild, J. J., Wild, K. L., & Ball, A. 2016, International Business: The Challenges of Globalization, Boston: Pearson.