The paper “ Evaluation of Changes in Role of Management in the Past Two Decades" is a brilliant example of an essay on management. Currently, the management of diversity enhances organization development and recent studies indicate growing trends in the changes of the role and context of management. Management involves rational calculations, objective coordination of the tasks and effective allocation of resources. Managers shape organizations, and organizations shape management. Hence, management is contextual and dynamic. The context of management has broadened, and it protects from inefficiencies and chaos (Willmott 1993, p.
515). The position of females over the last two decades has significantly improved. The changes have not only been promising but have alleviated negative developments in the male employment rates. Hence, this has become the major driver in achieving the Lisbon’ s employment goals. The observed changes have been heterogeneous across age groups and countries. In particular, employment rates’ process among females had low convergence; with the countries experiencing worse initial conditions experienced a slightly higher increase in the employment rates for women. The older women cohorts contributed greatly to the improvement of employment.
Also, such changes were positive among prime-aged women, but young females experienced a decline in employment rates (Reed 2011, p. 70). The decomposition of the changes in management indicates that the significant steering by the intensity improvements. Some of the policies affecting the changes in management roles are the retirement policies, as well as the policies on flexible employment arrangements. Imposing limits on early retirement schemes as well as increasing the statutory retirement age among women prolonged the participation of women in management. The formulation of reforms aimed at increasing flexibility of the legislation of job contracts increased both the fixed term and part-time jobs. The last two decades have seen increased employment in European countries and this result from women.
Employment among men fell drastically. There has been a substantial decrease in the gender employment gap, where it diminished by 7.8 percent between 1990 and 2000. The 2008 crisis impacted primarily on men and decreased the employment gap further to 17.1 percent (Newell & Dopson 1996, p. 20). The changes in overall employment among females were highly heterogeneous. This is attributable to large increases in the rate of employment among both prime-aged and older groups.
Some countries with relatively low employment rates during the early 2000s experienced considerable improvements. Both decades have experienced a negative relationship between the initial female employment level and the subsequent improvements in almost all age groups, and this acts as a symbol of convergence in the female employment patterns. Historically, decreasing the burden of the housework and social attitude changes critically contributed to the increased participation of female labor. Also, the changes in an institutional setting contributed to the increased employment among women.
Such changes include modifications of the benefit and family policies and changes in the tax system. Other factors contributing to the changes are modifications or changes to the institutional background (Hales 1986, p. 115). In conclusion, the improvement in participation of women in management in the past two decades was the main factor raising contention in management. This mainly results from changes in education structure among women and the increased mobilization policies for the participation of women in management (Grey 1999, p. 561).