The paper "Demographic Transition Stages" is a good example of marketing coursework. Demographic transition refers to the change in the death and birth rates over a period (Haub & Gribble 2011, p. 4). The demographic transition comprises of four stages. The first phase is the pre-modern phase characterized by an increasing birth rate and a declining death rate (Blue & Espenshade 2012). Countries in this phase include Zambia and Afghanistan. Zambia is selected because it exhibits the birth and death rates in the first phase. Census results from the Central Statistical Office (2010) showed that Zambia had a population of 13 million.
The country had a 2.8 percent population growth and a high birth rate of 42.46 for every 1,000 people (Central Intelligence Agency [CIA] 2015a). The reason for the country’ s fourth-highest bank rate in the world is attributed to a high fertility rate (5.7 children/woman), the low mean age of mothers (19.2 years) and declining contraception use. The declining death rate of 12.9 deaths for every 1,000 people could be attributed to quality healthcare, high health expenditure (6.1 percent of the gross domestic product), access to clean drinking water and improved sanitation (CIA 2015a). The second phase describes a decline in the death and birth rates of a population (Haub & Gribble 2011, p. 4).
Countries in this phase are Iraq and Ghana. Iraq has a population of 35.5 million with a 0.4 decline in growth rate. Reason for the declining population growth rate is the decreasing birth rate of 26.8 births for every 1,000 people. The declining birth rate could be attributed to the low fertility rate (3.4 children/woman in 2010) and high contraception use (51.2 percent) (CIA 2015b).
The death rate of 4.5 deaths for every 1,000 people could be attributed to due to increasing elderly population (2.8 percent to 4.8 percent), higher life expectancy (71.4 years), higher health expenditure, access to drinking water (85 percent) and better sanitation facilities (CIA 2015b). The third phase is characterized by a declining birth rate and stagnated death rate. Countries in this phase are Malaysia and Gabon (Haub & Gribble 2011, p. 5). Gabon has a population of 1.6 million with a growth rate of 1.94 percent.
The birth rate of 34.64 births per 1,000 people could be attributed to the low median age (18.6 years), the low average age of women giving birth (20.3 years), low maternal mortality, the fertility rate of 4.49 births per woman and low contraceptive use (31 percent) (CIA 2015c). The fourth phase has low birth and death rate (Haub & Gribble 2011, p. 5). This phase is common in Japan and Brazil. Japan’ s low birth and the death rate are evidenced in the static population rate. The population in 2010 was the same in 2005 at 128 million (Statistics Bureau of Japan 2011, p. 2).
The low birth rate could be due to the aging population, declining fertility rate and fewer births per childbearing woman. The declining death rate is due to the increasing aging population (23 percent) compared to the younger population and quality medical care (Statistics Bureau of Japan 2011, p. 3).
Blue, L & Espenshade, TJ 2012, ‘Population momentum across the demographic transition’, Population Development Review, vol.37, no.4, pp. 721-747.
Central Intelligence Agency 2015a, ‘Zambia’, The World Factbook, viewed 16 March 2015
Central Intelligence Agency 2015b, ‘Iraq’, The World Factbook, viewed 16 March 2015
Central Intelligence Agency 2015c, ‘Gabon’, The World Factbook, viewed 16 March 2015
Central Statistical Office (CSO) 2011, ‘Zambia: 2010 census of population and housing: Preliminary population figures’, United Nations Statistics Office, viewed 16 March 2015
Ghana Statistical Service 2009, ‘Ghana demographic and health survey 2008’, Ghana Health Service, pp.1-369.
Haub, C & Gribble, J 2011, ‘The world at 7 billion population’, PRB Population Bulletin, vol.66, no. 2, pp.2-12.
ID Population Experts 2011, ‘Community profile: City of Parramatta 2011-Census results’, pp.1-51.
McFalls, JA 2007, ‘Population: A lively introduction’, PRB Population Bulletin, vol. 62, no.1, pp.3-31.
Statistics Bureau of Japan 2011, ‘2010 Japan census: Population count based on the 2010 Census released’, United Nations Statistics Office, pp.1-4, viewed 16 March 2015