The paper 'How Different Types of Cultural Tourism Products Present Different Levels of Authenticity" is a great example of tourism coursework. Cultural tourism is not a new phenomenon and has existed since ancient times. Different cultural groups would travel from place to place and the main reason for travel in the ancient times was trade and pilgrimage. However, with time there developed special interests by especially Europeans in other cultures. Other relationships between cultures were developed by the Europeans and were: Darwinism and the search for the ‘ origins of man’ , The Christian missionary quest to ‘ save savage and Colonialism and the enlargement of empire and souls. Past tourism is also included in cultural tourism and is widely known as heritage cultural tourism.
For cultural tourism to be effective, perspectives of other cultural tourism have to be considered. Cultural relativism acts as a catalyst for this as it promotes cultural understanding of other cultures. Tourism-related to a culture largely depends on the validity or undisputed credibility about that particular culture (authenticity). Statement Cultural tourism has been practised since time immemorial. However, there are different reasons as to why it was practised but the main reasons were trade and pilgrimage.
With time especially when the European countries started to be relatively congested, new interests in other cultures developed. Among the first interests was the search for the origin of man by Darwin. Later colonialism was seen and then the spread of the Biblical words by the missionaries. Culture reflects the way people with a common ancestor behave and the way they live according to their past or according to the way their ancestors did (Smith, 2003).
Culture can also define the way people have developed and adapted to the place they live from the past to the present. The definitions of culture cannot be overemphasized and there are very many according to different authors and people. However, culture can only be defined well when considering how people behave, how they perceive the world and has to involve the values and codes of a particular social group. Cultures have been seen to change over a period of time in adapting in their environment. Some change at a very fast rate while others change over a long period of time.
Ancient people thought that cultures never change but this has been proved otherwise as presently people adopt new ways of life and ideas from others thereby changing their different cultures. Nowadays, many people are adopting western culture in many ways especially technological advancements. This aspect of changing ideas manifests itself clearly in the tourism sector which has to consider cultural aspects of different cultural groups for it to succeed. Interaction among people is a key concept in culture. Relating to other cultures is very vital as we are able to share ideas and learn from others effectively.
According to (Burns 1999), culture is achieved through both social relations and materials products. This shows both the visible and invisible aspects interchanged in cultures and may include food, marriage, and the ways systems like political and economic systems function and materially through buildings, tools and transport. These invisible and visible artefacts of culture influence tourism in many ways and they are therefore considered to be very important in tourism.
Burns, P 1999, An introduction to tourism and anthropology, Routledge, London.
Giddens, A 1997, Sociology, 3rd edn, Polity Press, Cambridge
McKercher, B & du Cros, H 2002, Cultural tourism: the partnership between tourism and culturalheritage management, Haworth Hospitality Press, New York.
Regan, T (ed.) 1990, Earthbound: introductory essays in environmental ethics, Waveland, Illinois
ICOMOS 1994, The Nara document on authenticity, viewed 19th August 2009 from,
McKercher, B and Cros, H. D. 2002. Cultural tourism: the partnership between tourism and cultural heritage management. 2nd Edition. London: Routledge.
Wall, G. and Mathieson, A. 2006. Tourism: change, impacts, and opportunities. 2nd Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Smith, L and Akagawa, N. 2009. Intangible Heritage. 2nd Edition. London: Taylor & Francis.