Essays on Issues Involved in the Management of Women Who Are Group B Streptococcus Positive Literature review

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The paper 'Issues Involved in the Management of Women Who Are Group B Streptococcus Positive" is a good example of a business literature review.   Universal screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in pregnancy is offered to all Australian women and is carried out routinely at about 36 weeks (Walker, 2012). GBS also referred to as Streptococcus agalactiae, is arguably one of the leading causes of life-threatening bacterial infections presently screened for, and affects between 10-30 percent of the Australian pregnant women population. About one out of every three women carries the infection within their bowel, and it colonizes the vagina in every one out of four women (RANZCOG, 2011).

According to Walker, (2012) the vertical disease transmission rate in unborn babies is lower in the sense that 12 out of 1000 newborns of infected mothers develop early signs of GBS. Nevertheless, GBS causes a lot of health implications for a newborn baby. If the infection is not treated, it approximated that one out of each 200 babies born with an infected mother, is likely to suffer from life-threatening complications such as neonatal sepsis, blood poisoning, meningitis and pneumonia.

Some recent evidence suggests that increasing the use of antibiotics for treatment of GBS in pregnancy may lead to complications of antibiotic resistance and subsequent difficulties in treating infection (McIntosh, 2011, Novelli, 2003). This academic paper will firstly define GBS and antenatal screening, followed by identification and critical analysis of current evidence of the issues involved in the management of women who are GBS positive. GBS is defined as a bacterial infection caused by a bacterium referred to as Streptococcus agalactiae. The infection affects women during pregnancy essentially those women who are not frequently treated using antibiotics.

GBS can categorically be linked to the same family bug as that of the sore throats. However, the bacterium that causes GBS is not similar to the one that causes sore throats (RANZCOG, 2011). On the other hand, universal screening entails screening of every individual in a particular category for instance in terms of age. Universal screening for GBS, therefore, involves performing tests in order to detect the existence of Streptococcus agalactiae bacterium in pregnant women (Walker, 2012). GBS infection is usually characterized by a number of (multiplicities) of clinical features, but the typical discovery is the quickly developing areflexic ascending motor paralysis of the extremities.

A two-sided facial paralysis has also been reported as the initial sign-in approximately 50 percent of the GBS patients (Iannello, 2004). Another characteristic of GBS is reduced or lacking profound reflexes of the tendon and slight sensory symptoms may as well be seen. On the other hand, a number of GBS patients can display significant weight loss in addition to cranial nerve deficits impairing oral intake (very uncommon signs).

They are thus argued to be often hypercatabolic and hypermetabolic due to the endocrine, contagious, and inflammatory components of the infection (Iannello, 2004). Issues involved in the Management of Women who are GBS Positive Lack of adherence to guidelines According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2011), during the year 2002, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention came up with guidelines urging pregnant women to be screened for GBS between the 35th and 37th of their pregnancy. The guidelines also recommended that if the results prove positive, then the pregnant mothers are to be given intravenous antibiotics four or more hours prior to the delivery of their babies in order to avoid passing the GBS to it.

However, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2011), this has not been the case. This is supported by Lockwood (2011), who argues that one of the significant issues involved in the management of women who are GBS positive is the lack of adherence to the prenatal GBS screening and treatment guidelines. Recent studies by Rodriguez, (2011) carried out to determine the current adherence to screening and treatment guidelines in Tennessee, for instance, have revealed that while 85% of the women were screened for this infection, the tests were often carried out too early and not all the women who tested positive for the GBS were given the antibiotics prior to their delivery.

References

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012) .Women's Health: Prenatal screening for Group B streptococci often fails to live up to current screening and treatment guidelines.

Back, E, Grady, E.J and Back, J. (2012).’’High Rates of Perinatal Group B Streptococcus Clindamycin and Erythromycin Resistance in an Upstate New York Hospital. Journal of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 56(2): 739–742.

Davies, H.D. (2002).Preventing Group B Streptococcal Infections: New recommendations, Journal of Pediatrics & Child Health. 7(6): 380–383.

Gibbs, R.S, Schrag, S & Schuchat, A. (2004). Perinatal Infections due to Group B Streptococci, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Garland, S.M, Cottril, E, Markowski & Pearce, C. (2011). Antimicrobial Resistance in Group B Streptococcus: The Australian Experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 60(2):p230-5.

Iannello, S. (2004). Guillain-Barre Syndrome: Pathological, Clinical, and Therapeutical Aspects. Nova Publishers.

Levine E. M. et al.(1999). "Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis Increases the Incidence of Gram Negative Neonatal Sepsis," Infectious Disease Obstetric Gynecology. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 7(4).: 210-213.

Lockwood, C. (2011).Understanding the New CDC group B Streptococcal Guidelines. Sage.

Kok, J and Gilbert, L. (2011). Infections in the trimester of pregnancy. Center of infectious diseases and Microbiology , NSW.

McIntosh, T. (2011).Direct Maternal Deaths due to Puerperal Fever: Back to the Future? Mark Allen Publishing Ltd.

McCartney, M. (2012).Streptococcus B in pregnancy: to screen or not to screen? BMJ Group

Novelli, C. (2003). Treating Group B Strep: Are Antibiotics Necessary? Retrieved on August 18, 2012 from http://mothering.com/pregnancy-birth/treating-group-b-strep

Rodriguez, C. (2011).Group B Streptococcus during Pregnancy, Labor & Birth: An evidenced based Clinical Practice Guideline for Group B Streptococcus during pregnancy, labor and birth. Institute of Midwifery, Women & Health, Philadelphia University.

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Prevention of Early Onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease.

The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists . (2011). Screening and Treatment for Group B Streptococcus in Pregnancy.

Retrived From

Steer, P.J. (2011).To Screen or not to Screen: Group B Streptococcus and Prenatal Infections, British Journal of Midwifery. 19( 3 ).

Sharma, S. (2011).Clinical Essays in Obstetrics and Gynecology . Medical Ltd.

Verani,J.R,McGee,L, Schrag,S.J.(2010).Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease, Revised Guidelines from CDC, Division of Bacterial Diseases. National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases

Walker, N . (2012). GBS Screening. O &G Magazine ; 14(2).

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